Art and The World: Greece

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    • Kroisos, from Anavysos, Greece
    • ca. 530 BCE
    • This later kouros stood over the grave of Kroisos, a young man who died in battle. The statue displays increased naturalism in its proportions and more rounded modeling of face, torso, and limbs.
    • Figuring out human anatomy more- not just composed of flat planes, head not too big for body
    • \Marble
    • Archaic Smile
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    • Peplos Kore, from the Acropolis, Athens, Greece
    • ca. 530 BCE
    • Unlike men, women are always clothed in Archaic statuary. This kore is a votive statue of a goddess wearing four garments. She once held her identifying attribute in her missing left hand
    • Left hand pulls drapery, shows off body- trophy wives and daughters
    • Usually placed on acropolis, for all to see
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    • Kore, from the Acropolis, Athens, Greece
    • ca. 520–510 BCE
    • Archaic sculptors delighted in rendering the intricate asymmetrical patterns created by the cascading folds of garments like the Ionian chiton and himation worn by the smiling Acropolis kore.
    • Left hand pulling drapery, shows off body- trophy wives and daughters
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    • Achilles and Ajax playing a dice game (Athenian bilingual amphora), from Orvieto, Italy
    • Black-figure side (left) and red-figure side (right)
    • Around 530 BCE, the Andokides Painter invented the red-figure technique. Some of his early vases are "bilingual"—that is, the same scene appears on both sides, one in black-figure and one in red-figure.
    •  not as detailed, therefore not as trajic
    • Scene shows Ajax and Achilles relaxing before the Trojan battle, where Achilles is killed and Ajax commits suicide- poignent moment
    • Copy of black figure amphora 540-530 BC, by Exekias
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    • 490 BC warrior:
    • Dying warrior, from the west pediment of the Temple of Aphaia, Aegina, Greece
    • The statues of the west pediment of the early-fifth-century BCE temple at Aegina exhibit Archaic features. This fallen warrior still has a rigidly frontal torso and an Archaic smile on his face.

    • 480 BC warrior:
    • Dying warrior, from the east pediment of the Temple of Aphaia, Aegina, Greece
    • The eastern dying warrior already belongs to the Classical era. His posture is more natural, and he exhibits a new self-consciousness. Concerned with his own pain, he does not face the viewer. Shows the great control of emotions that grecians found ideal

    Due to all the deaths from the persian war, humans become less as symbols and more important as humans alone
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    • "The last Kouros"- shows basic convetions, but also changes- Classical era has Greece looking within, coming into their own
    • Kritios Boy, from the Acropolis, Athens, Greece
    • This is the first statue to show how a person naturally stands. The sculptor depicted the shifting weight from one leg to the other (contrapposto). The head turns slightly, and the Archaic smile is gone.
    • Head slightly turned rather than frontal
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    • Kouros
    • ca 600 BC
    • The sculptors of the earliest life-size statues of kouroi (young men) adopted the Egyptian pose for standing figures, but the kouroi are nude and liberated from the original block of stone.
    • Body not very realistic, head, eyes oversized b/c these were important to greeks
    • Influenced by Egypt because of trade, they were mercenaries there
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    • Charioteer, from a group dedicated by Polyzalos of Gela in the Sanctuary of Apollo, Delphi, Greececa.
    • 475 BCE
    • Bronze
    • Shows the charioteer in front of the judges; his team, sponsered by Polyzalos, just won, yet ne is in complete control of his emotions, as an ideal Greek should be
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    • Artist: Myron
    • Diskobolos (Discus Thrower)
    • Ca. 450 BC
    • Roman marble copy of a bronze original This marble copy of Myron's lost bronze statue captures how the sculptor froze the action of discus throwing and arranged the nude athlete's body and limbs so that they formed two intersecting arcs.
    • Ritmos- Myron was an expert in showing motion; shows player at top of arc, so this one moment frozen in time shows a whole range of motion
    • Though the entire body is strained, the face is calm- Greek ideal
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    • Artist: Polykleitos
    • Doryphoros (Spear Bearer). Roman marble copy from Pompeii, Italy
    • after bronze original ca. 450-440 BC
    • Polykleitos sought to portray the perfect man and to impose order on human movement. He achieved his goals by employing harmonic proportions and a system of cross balance for all parts of the body.
    • Mathematical
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    • "Rugged Killer", Warrior, found in a Roman shipwreck off of Riace, Italy in 1972
    • Ca 460-450 BC
    • BronzeThe bronze Riace warrior statue has inlaid eyes, silver teeth and eyelashes, and copper lips and nipples. The contrapposto is more pronounced than in the Kritios Boy.
    • Seem to embody a raw energy
  12. Riace warrior v. Doryphoros
    • Rugged killer embodies more raw energy, while Dory tries to look more proportional
    • Dory was to describe perfect human being, Riace to desrcibe a warrior
  13. Pericles & Athens
    • Pericles involved in Athens politics from 460-429 BC- wanted to glorify
    • Pericles took the money for the Delain League from Delip and brought it to Athens- convinced everyone it would be safer there
    • Pericles gets peace treaty signed 449 BC- decides idea to keep ruins as a reminder of horrible wars no longer neccessary, wants to make monuments to show victory over barbarains- uses money form Delian League
    • Commisioned the Parthenon on the Acropolis- propoganda to glorify Athens- pediments, metopes, etc.
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    • Artists: IKTINOS and KALLIKRATES (Pericles hired best artists of the time)
    • Parthenon (Temple of Athena Parthenos; view from the northwest), Acropolis, Athens, Greece
    • 447–438 BCE
    • Pure marble- most temples at the time were limestone w/ marble accents
    • The architects of the Parthenon believed that perfect beauty could be achieved by using harmonic proportions. The ratio for larger and smaller parts was x = 2y + 1 (for example, a plan of 17 × 8 columns).
    • Decorated to glorify Athens- West Ped, for example, was the first thing you would see, and it shows Athena and Poseidon fighting over who would rule the city
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    • Artist: Phidias
    • thena Parthenos, in the cella of the Parthenon, Acropolis, Athens, Greece
    • Ca. 438 BC
    • Model of the lost chryselephantine statue, nside the cella of the Parthenon was Phidias's 38-foot-tall gold-and-ivory statue of Athena Parthenos (the Virgin), fully armed and holding Nike (Victory) in her extended right hand.which was approx. 38’ tall.
    • Gold parts were removable- could be melted down if needed
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    • Nike adjusting her sandal, from the south side of the parapet of the Temple of Athena Nike, Acropolis, Athens, Greece
    • Ca 410 BC
    • The image of winged Victory was repeated dozens of times on the parapet around the Athena Nike temple. Here, the sculptor carved a figure whose garments appear almost transparent.
    • "Wet drapery" clothing- reveals more than it covers- precursor to the first female nudes (Aphrodite)
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    • Artist: PRAXITELES
    • Aphrodite of Knidos
    • Roman marble copy of an original of ca. 350–340 BCE.
    • Gods w/o some of their solemn grandeur, more sensuous
    • First nude statue of a woman, and it was not just a woman, but a goddess
    • Prax. famous for his ability to transform marble into soft and radient flesh
    • Shows fourth century ideal of breaking the strict boundary between the world of the statue and the word of the viewer- almost as if you are stepping into her world
    • Cult statue
  18. Statue of Zeus
    • Artist: Phidias
    • In Temple of Zeus at Olympia
    • Ca. 450 BC
    • Chyrselephatine
    • 39.5 feet- would go through the roof if he stood
    • Like the statue of Athena, incredibly grandisose, meant to glorify the gods, no expense lost
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    • Artist: Praxiteles
    • Hermes and the infant Dionysos, from the Temple of Hera, Olympia, Greece.
    • Copy of a statue by Praxiteles of ca. 340 BCE or an original work of ca. 330–270 BCE by a son or grandson.
    • Praxiteles humanized the Olympian deities. This Hermes is as sensuous his Aphrodite. The god gazes dreamily into space while he dangles grapes as temptation for the infant god of wine.
    • Dioynsis was child of Zeus and mortal woman, who died during pregnancy- Zeus carried baby to term in his thigh, then had his son Hermes take him away to be raised by nymphs so Hera would not get jealous
    • Delicacy of facial features in strict contrast to the 5th century's law of symmetry
    • More tender moment than would ever be shown in fifth century
  20. Weary Herakles
    • Artist: Lysippos
    • Bronze original ca. 320  BC, 10'5"
    • Roman copy stood in public baths
    • Tired- just held up sky for Athens  to complete his labor of obtaining the three golden apples
    • Unprecedented- shows half-divine figure as tired, almost an intimate look- showed gods as not unlike humans
  21. Weary Herakles & Hermes w/ Dioynsis
    Both show a more intimate look at gods then would ever be shown in the fifth century- brought gods down to the level of humans
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    • Athena battling Alkyoneos, detail of the gigantomachy frieze, from the Altar of Zeus, Pergamon, Turkey
    • Acropolis was a great showpiece for this small kingdom- theatricality of hellenistic period
    • ca. 175 BCE
    • emotional power unparalleled in earlier Greek art. Violent movement, swirling draperies, and vivid depictions of suffering fill the frieze.
    • Pergammon just had battle w/ tribes of Gaul- repelled several attacks- may metaphorically represent it
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    • Seated boxer, from Rome, Italy
    • Ca. 100-50 BC (Hellenistic)
    • Bronze
    • Even when Hellenistic artists treated traditional themes, they approached them in novel ways. This bronze statue represents an older, defeated boxer with a broken nose and battered ears.
    • In Athenian times, boxer was backed by a city-state, but in Hellenistic times, there were no more city-states; you were on you're own
    • Probably a votive or commerative
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    • "Old Market Woman"
    • 150–100 BCE
    • Marble
    • Wears a wreath- may be coming from festival of Dioynsis- shows the power of Dioynsis, the widespreadness of it
  25. Old Market Woman and Boxer
    • Never before the Hellensitic period had normal people been considered as inspiration for statues
    • Great realism- shows ages, imperfections like a broken nose, rather than trying to make everything look rosy and perfect
    • Get rep of all aspects of society, like Mahdia Dwarfs
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    • Laocoön and his sons, from Rome, Italy
    • Early first century CE
    • MarbleHellenistic style lived on in Rome. Although stylistically akin to Pergamene sculpture, this statue of sea serpents attacking Laocoön and his two sons matches the account given only in the Aeneid.
    • Hellenistic baroc- strong emotions, exaggerated twisting
    • Episode from Trojan War
  27. Lacoon & Athena battling Alkyoneos
    • Both show great emotion, including pain that was unprecedented in earlier art
    • Hellenistic baroc- strong emotions, exaggerated twisting
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Art and The World: Greece
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