1. Taxonomy
    Classification of living organisms
  2. Importance of Taxonomy
    • Provides common scientific language
    • Allows grouping of unknown organisms
    • Based on comparisons, similarities (DNA, rRNA, metabolism...)
  3. Binomial nomenclature
    Names all living organisms with a Genus species designation (italicized or underlined)
  4. Entamoeba histolytica
  5. Escherichia coli
    Named after Theodor Escherich in 1888; found in the colon
  6. Haemophilus ducreyi
    • Hemo - blood
    • phil - love
    • Agusto Ducrey 1889
  7. Nesisseria gonorrhoeae
    Named after Albert L neisser in 1879; causes gonorrhea
  8. Saccharomyces cerevisiae
    • Saccharo-sugar
    • myco-mold
    • cerevisia-beer or ale
  9. Staphulococcus aureus
    • Stapho-cluster
    • kokkus-berry
    • Aureus-golden
  10. Lactococcus lactis
    • Lacto-milk
    • kokkus-berry
  11. Shugella etousae
    Named after Kiyoshi Shiga in 1898; European Theater of Operations of the US Army (final e gives proper Latin ending)
  12. Strain
    Species subdivision
  13. Bergery's Manual of Bacteriology
    Classifies all known bacteria using criteria such as morphology, cell wall composition, O2 requirements, biochemical testing of enzymes/metabolism
  14. Sugar fermentation
    Organism is inoculated into a medium containing a specific sugar; growth and end products of fermentation, including gases, are noted.
  15. Gelatin liquefaction
    Organism us inoculated into a solid medium contain gelatin; liquefaction at room temp or inability to re-solidify at refrigerator temp indicates the presence of proteolytic (protein digesting) enzymes
  16. Catalase
    Hydrogen peroxide is poured over heavy growth of an organism on an agar slant; release of O2 gas bubbles indicated the presence of catalase, which oxidizes H2O2 to H2o and O2
  17. Oxidase
    Two or three drops of an oxidase test reagent are added to an organism growing on an agar plate; a color change of the test reagent to blue, purple or black indicated the presence of cytochrome oxidase
  18. Citrate utilization
    Organism is inoculated into citrate agar medium in which citrate is the sole carbon source; an indicator is the medium changes color if citrate is metabolized; use of citrate indicates the presence of the permease complex that transports citrate into the cell
  19. Two ways to classify life
    • 5-Kingdom
    • 3 Domain
  20. 5-Kingdom
    • Traditional
    • Plantae Pungi Animalia
    • Protista
    • Monera
  21. 3 Domain
    Study PP
  22. 2 main prokaryotic groups (domains)
    • Eubacteria
    • Archaeobacteria
  23. Eubacteria
    • Most common bacteria
    • Eg- gm(+), gm(-), all pathogens
  24. Archaeobacteria
    • Differ: Cell wall (no peptidoglycan), antibiotic sensitivity, membranes
    • Live in extreme environments (thermophiles and halophiles)
    • Unusual metabolism (methanogens)
    • Most ancient forms of life
Card Set
Exam 2