IBHS Lab quiz6

  1. cardi/o
  2. in-
    not or inside
  3. micro-
  4. -scope
    instrument used for viewing
  5. skelet/o
  6. viscer/o

    internal organs enclosed within a body cavity
  7. Types of muscles
    • voluntary (skeletal)
    • visceral (smooth)
    • cardiac
  8. voluntary/skeletal muscle
    • attached to bone
    • controlled by conscious part of brain to produce mvment
    • under microcope: striations, alternate light/dark bands
  9. visceral/smooth muscle
    • located in walls of hollow internal structures
    • involuntary, lacks striations
  10. cardiac muscle
    • involuntary
    • striated
  11. abdomin/o
  12. bi-
  13. brachi/o
  14. pector/o
  15. radi/o
    radiant energy or radius
  16. tibi/o
  17. fibromyalgia
    widespread non articular pain of torso, extremities and face
  18. myofibrosis
    tissue replaced by fibrous tissue
  19. myasthenia gravis
    fatigue and muscle weakness resulting from defect in conduction of nerve impulses
  20. para-
  21. quadri-
    tetra; four
  22. -plegia
  23. herniated disk
    • aka slipped disk
    • ruptured disc between vertebrae
    • can compress on spinal cord/nerve causing pain
  24. paraplegia
    paralysis of lower portion of body and both legs
  25. quadriplegia
    • paralysis of arms and legs 
    • (all 4 extremities)
  26. tparesis
    slight or incomplete paralysis
  27. paraparesis
    slight or partial paralysis
  28. quadirparesis or tetraparesis
    paralysis of all four extremities
  29. dislocation
    displacement of bone from joint
  30. fracture
    breaking of a bone, usually from sudden injury
  31. simple fracture
    • bone broken 
    • does not puncture skin surface
  32. compound fracture
    broken bone is visible thru opening in skin
  33. -graph
    recording instrument
  34. radi/o
    radient energy
  35. sprain
    • injury to joint that causes pain and disability
    • severity depends on degree of injury to ligaments or tendons
  36. strain
    excessive use of a part of body to extent that it's injured to a muscle; caused by violent contraction or excessive forcible stretch
  37. myocele
    • condition in which muscle protrudes thru fascial overing
    • aka fascial hernia
  38. tendinitis/tendonitis
    inflammation of tendon
  39. cellul/o
    little cell
  40. -itis
  41. my/o
  42. oste/o
  43. chondr/o
  44. cellulitis
    infammation of deep subcutaneous tissue
  45. myocellulitis
    inflammation of deep subcutaneous tissue and muscle 
  46. osteitis
    • inflammation of bone;
    • caused by infection, degeneration or trauma
  47. osteomyelitis
    • infection of bone and bone marrow
    • caused by infectious microorganisms
  48. osteochondritis
    • inflammation of bone and cartilage
    • tends to attack bone-forming (ossification) centers of skeleton
  49. sarcomas
    • cancers that arise from connective tissue (muscle or bone);
    • -sarcoma = malignant tumor
  50. chondrosarcoma
    • malignant tumor of cartilage;
    • composed of masses of cartilage
  51. fibrosarcoma
    malignant tumor with a lot of fibrous tissue
  52. leukemias
    • chronic or acute dx of blood-forming tissues;
    • unrestrained growth of leukocytes & their precursors
  53. multiple myeloma
    • dx w/presence of many tumor masses in bone & bone marrow
    • ~progressive & fatal
  54. what is the result in metabolic disorders?
    loss of homeostasis in the body
  55. osteoporosis
    metabolic dx in which reduced mass leads to subsequent fractures, most often affecting postmenopausal women, sedentary individs, & pts receiving long-term steroid therapy
  56. ili/o
  57. poster/o
  58. where is bone marrow taken from
    • posterior iliac crest;
    • cells & fluids suctioned from bone marrow;
    • results give info about bone marrow fn, WBC, RBC and platelet protection
  59. oste/o
  60. throac/o
    throax (chest)
  61. porosis
  62. -malacia
    abnormal softening
  63. osteomalacia
    • reversible skel disorder;
    • defect in minerlization of bone
    • due to deficiency of VitD
  64. spondylomalacia
    softening of vertebrae
  65. osteitis deformans
    • aka Paget dx
    • skel dx of elderly w/chronic bone inflam.
    • results=thickening & softening of bones  bowing of long bones
  66. spina bifida
    • congenital abnormality w/defective closure of bones of spine
    • can cause herniation of sc
  67. scoliosis
    • lateral curvature of spine;
    • may be congenital or caused by other conditions
  68. kyphosis
    • condition where exaggerated curvature of spine from front to back
    • aka humpback/hunchback
  69. muscular dystrophy
    grp of inherited dx characterized by weakness atrophy of muscle w/out involvemt of nervous sys & progressive disability & loss of strength
  70. crani/o
  71. -cele
  72. craniocele
    hernial protrusion of brain thru defect in skull
  73. tarsoptosis
    • flatfoot;
    • flattening out of carch of foot
  74. tars/o
  75. -ptosis
  76. arthr/o
  77. arthritis
    inflammatory condition of joints characterized by pain, heat, swelling, redness, limitation of mvmt
  78. osteoarthritis
    • aka degenerative joint dx (DJD)
    • form of arthritis, one or many joints undergo degenerative changes, esp loss of articular cartilage
    • chronic dx- involves joints bearing wt
    • most common type of arthritis
    • classified as CT dx
  79. rheumat/o
  80. rheumatoid arthritis (RA)
    • 2nd most common CT dx
    • chronic, systemic--> joint deformities, esp hands & feet
  81. rheumatism characteristics
    acute and chronic conditions characterized by inflammation, soreness, stiffness of muscles & joint pain
  82. spondylarthritis
    • inflammation of a vertebra
    • thought to be arthritis of spine
  83. rheumatoid spondylitis
    • inflammation of cartilage btwn vertebrae
    • can cause neighboring vertebrae to fuse
  84. ankylosed
    • "poker spine"
    • whole spine stiffens
  85. polyarthritis
    inflammation of more than one joint
  86. arthralgia
    painful joint
  87. arthrodynia
    painful joint
  88. bursitis
    • inflammation of a bursa
    • does not include joint inflam
  89. ankylosis
    • abnormal condition
    • joint is immobile and stiff
  90. lupus erythematosus (LE)
    • autoimmune dx involves CT
    • butterfly rash across bridge of nose
  91. gout
    • painful metabolic dx; acute arthritis
    • inflam of joints, esp in foot/knee
    • hereditary
    • results= hyperuricemia & deposits of urates in & around joints
  92. hyperuricemia
    inflammation and excessive uric acid
  93. arthroscopy
    • direct visualization of interior of joint using special fiberoptic arthroscope
    • req few small incisions
    • diseased/damage cartilage removed
  94. arthrotomy
    incision of joint
  95. arthropathy
    refers to any disease of a joint
  96. arthroscopy of knee
    • exam interior of joint
    • insert endoscope thru small incision
    • biopsy of cartilage/damaged synovial membrane allowed
    • diagnosis of condition may req removal of loss bodies in joint space
  97. congenital abnormality characterized by defective closure of spine = ____
    spina bifida
  98. lateral curvature of spine = ?
  99. grp of inherited dx characterized by weakness, wasting of muscle & progressive disability is _____
    muscular dystrophy
  100. an inflammatory condition of joints characterized by pain & limitation of mvmt is ____
  101. degenerative joint dx is also called ______
  102. a chronic, systemic type of arthritis is called _____
    rhematoid arthritis
  103. painful joint is called either arthralgia or _____
  104. an autoimmune dx that involves CT is _____
    lupus erythematosus
  105. painful inherited form of acute arthritis that involves urate deposits in joints is ___
  106. term for excessive uric acid in blood = ___
  107. orthopedic surgeons restore fractures to their normal positions by reduction by...
    pulling the broken fragment into alignment
  108. closed reduction
    fracture restoration to its normal position by manipulation w/out surgery
  109. open reduction
    fracture exposed by surgery before broken ends can be aligned
  110. internal fixation
    • in open reductions
    • uses pins, rods, plates, screws, or other materials to immobilize fracture
  111. external fixation
    • in open & closed reductions
    • uses metal pins attached to compression device outside skin surface
  112. ways to expedite healing of broken bone
    • electrical bone stimulation
    • bone grafting
    • ultrasound tx
  113. osteoporosis tx
    • calcium therapy
    • vitamin D
    • anti-osteoporotics
    • estrogen therapy after menopause (prevent/tx of osteoporosis)
  114. vertebroplasty
    • plastic surgery of vertebral fractures
    • cement-like substance injected into body of fractured vertebra to stabilize & strengthen it & immed remove pain
  115. ostectomy
    excision of a bone (or portion of it)
  116. costectomy
    excision of a rib
  117. craniectomy
    excision of segment of skull
  118. craniotomy
    incision thru skull
  119. cranioplasty
    plastic surgery to repair kull
  120. chondrectomy
    excision of cartilage
  121. lumbar puncture
    • needle inserted into space btwn 3rd & 4th lumbar vertebrae
    • specimen of cerebrospinal fluid collected for exam
    • LP also necessary for injection of spinal anesthetic
  122. tendoplasty
    surgical repair of damaged tendons due to deep wound
  123. tenomyoplasty
    surgical repair of tendon and muscle
  124. myoplasty
    surgical repair of muscle
  125. muscle spasms relieved via ___
    muscle relaxants

    ie. spams w/herniated disk
  126. laminectomy
    surgical removal of bony posterior arch of vertebra to permit surgical access to disk so herniatd material can be removed
  127. diskectomy
    complete excision of an intervertebral disk
  128. spinal anesthesia
    loss of feeling produced by anesthetic injected into spinal canal
  129. spinal puncture
    • aka spinal tap, lumbar puncture
    • puncture of spinal cavity w/needle
  130. bunion
    abnormal enlargement of joint at base of great toe
  131. bunionectomy
    • excision of bunion
    • and sometimes straighten alignment of toes during same procedure
  132. drugs to treat diff forms of arthritis and other CT dx
    • antiinflammatories to reduce inflammation & pain, esp  NSAIDs
    • physical therapy to restore fn

    • ex. aspirin, ibuprofen
    • cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) aka celebrex doesn't cause stomach upset
  133. antiarthritics
    various forms of therapy that relieve sx of arthritis
  134. disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARDs)
    • may change course of inflammatory conditions (RA)
    • slowly progresses dx
    • slower acting than NSAIDs
    • prescribed w/antiinflammatories
  135. arthrocentesis
    • excessive fluid accumulated in synovial joint after injury
    • must be extracted w/needle
  136. arthroplasty
    surgical reconstruction or replacement of a joint
  137. myelosuppression
    • inhibition of bone marrow
    • cancer tx can cause this
    • need transplant to stimulate production of normal blood
  138. excision of a disk
  139. inhibiting bone marrow activity
  140. meds that reduce inflammation
  141. surgical puncture of synovial joint
  142. surgical repair of muscle
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IBHS Lab quiz6