Test 2 Bio Psych

  1. Difference in electrical charge between inside and outside cell

    Membrane potential
  2. What are 2 factors contributing to even distribution of ions?
    • Random motion 
    • Electrostatic pressure
  3. Particles tend to move down their concentration gradient
    Which type of motion is this?
    Random Motion
  4. Like repelslike, opposites attract. Is which type of pressure?
    Electrostatic pressure
  5. Selective permeability to certain ions & sodium-potassium pumps are factors contributing to what?
    uneven ditribution of ions
  6. The neuron at rest:
    Ions move in & out through......
    Ion specific channels

    • K+ & CL- pass readily
    • Little movement of NA+
    • A- dont move at all, trapped inside
  7. The neuron at rest:
    The potential at which there is no net movement of an ion- the potential it will move to achieve when allowed to move freely is.....
    Equilibrium potential 

    • Ex; NA+ = 12-mV
    • K+=90mV
    • Cl-=-70mV(same as resting potential)
  8. Na+ is driven in by both......
    Electrostatic pressure (repelling) & its concentration gradient  (random motion) 
  9. K+ is driven in by _____ & out by _______
    • Electrostatic forces 
    • Its concentration gradient 
  10. Cl- is a 
  11. Neurotransmitters bind at.....
    Postsynaptic receptors
  12. These chemical messengers bind & cause electrical changes...
    • Depolarizations ( making the membrane potential less negative)
    • Hyperpolarizations ( making the membrane potential more negative)
  13. Postsynaptic depolarizations = ?
    An excitatory PSP (EPSP)
  14. postsynaptic hyperpolarization= ?
    An inhibitory PSP (IPSP)
  15. ______ Make it more likely a neuron will fire, _____ Make it less likely
    • EPSPs 
    • IPSPs
  16. _____ are graded potentials- their size varies
  17. What is being described?
    - travel passively from their site of origination
    -Duration varies but transmitted at great speed
    - Decremental- They get smaller as they travel
    EPSPs & IPSPs
  18. One EPSP will not suffice to cause a neuron to " fire" & release neurotransmitters, which is needed?
  19. What is needed to generate an AP ( or fire) 
    The threshold of activation must be reached near the axon hillock
  20. Integration of IPSPs & EPSPs must result in....
    A potential of about -65mV in order to generate an AP
  21. Adding or combining a # of individual signals into one overall signal is...
  22. Integration of events happening at differnt times is....
    Temporal summation
  23. Integration of events happening at differnt places is.....
    Spatial summation
  24. All or none- when threshold is reached the neuron " fires" & the action potential occurs
    - When the threshold is reached, voltage- activated ion channels are opened
    This is...
    Action potential
  25. What are the differences of APs and PSPs?
    • EPSPs/IPSPs:
    • -Decremental
    • -Fast
    • -Passive(energy is not used)

    • APs:
    • Nondecremental
    • Conducted more slowly than PSPs
    • Passive & active
  26. Refactory periods: 
    • Prevent the backwards movement of APs & limit the rate of firing
    • - Impossible to initiate another action potential
    • -Harder to initiate another action potential
  27. What is the conduction like in myelinated axons?
    • Passive conduction( instant & decremental) along each myelin segment to next node of ranviee
    • - new action potential generated at each node
    • - Instant condution along myelin segments results in faster conduction than in unmyelinated axons
  28. What are the different types of synaptic conncetions?
    • Most common:
    • Axodendritic- axons on dendrites
    • Axosomatic- axons on cell bodies 

    • Dendrodendritic- capable of transmission in either direction
    • Axoaxonic- May be involved in presynaptic inhibition
  29. What are the 2 main types of NT molecules?
    • Small- synthesized in the terminal button & packaged in synaptic vesicles
    • Large- Assembled in the cell body, packaged in vesicles, & then transported to the axon terminal
  30. What is the main type of Neuropeptides molecules?
    • Large
    • Ex: endorphines "endogenous opioids"
    • Produce analgesia ( pain suppression)
    • Receptors were identified before the natural ligand was
  31. What are the small NTs types?
    • Amino acids- building blocks of proteins
    • Monoamines-All synthesized from a single amino acid
    • Acetylcholine(Ach)- activity terminated by enzymatic degration
    • Unconventional neurotransmitters-soluble gases & endacannabinoids
  32. found at fast acting directed synapses in the CNS
    Glutamate- Most prevalent excitatory neurotransmitter in the CNS
    GABA- synthesized from glutamte
    Most prevalent inhibitory NT in the CNS
    Aspartate & glycine
    are all part of which small NT
    Amino acid
  33. Effects tend to be diffuse
    Catecholamines- synthesized from tyrosine
    -Indolamines-synthesized from tryptophan
    Are all part of which small NT?
  34. Production of NTs at the terminal
    • The arrival of an AP at the terminal opens voltage-activated Ca2+ channels,
    • The entry  of Ca2+ causes vesicles to fuse with the terminal membrane & release their contents
  35. The process of NT release is...
  36. A molecule that binds to another is a ?
  37. What is associated with ligand- activated ion channels?
    Ionotrophic receptors
  38. What is associated with signal proteins & G proteins ( molecular switches- active/inactive)?
    Metabotrophic receptors
  39. These describe what?
    -NT binds & an associated ion channel opens or closes, causing a PSP
    -If NA+ channels are opened, for ex: an EPSP occurs
    If K+ channels are opened, an IPSP occurs
    Ionotropic receptors
  40. This describes what?
    Effects are slower, longer-lasting, more diffuse & more varied
    They opperate in the following sequence
    1-NT 1st messenger binds
    2-G protein subunit breaks away
    3- ion channel opened/closed OR a 2nd messenger is synthesized. 3- 2nd messengers may have a wide variety of effects
    Metabotropic receptors
  41. What are 2 ways of recycling NTs?
    • Reuptake- scoop up & recycling NT
    • Enzymatic- degration-a NT is broken down by enzymes
  42. Increase or facilitate activity is.....
  43. Decrease or inhibit activity is
  44. Two examples of agonists are
    • Cocaine (fight or flight) 
    • Benzodiazepines- (sedative, anti anxiety- GABA agonists
  45. What are two examples of antagonists?
    • Atropine- Ach , high does disrupt memory
    • Curare- causes paralysis
  46. Describe an NT cycle
    • 1-NT molecules are synthesized from precursors under the influence of enzymes
    • 2-NT molecules are stored in vesicles 
    • 3- NT molecules that leak from vesicles are destroyed by enzymes
    • 4-APs cause vesicles to fuse w/the presynaptic membrane & release their NT molecules into the synapse
    • 5- released NTs molecules bind w/autoreceptors & inhibit subsequent  NT release
    • 6- released NTs molecules bind to postsynaptic receptors
    • 7-released NTs molecules are deactivated, by either reuptake or enzymatic degradation
  47. What is this?
    Inject a substance into a brain structure to increase the contrast w/surrounding
    - Angiography inject dye into artery
    Contrast x-rays
  48. what is this?
    2-D x-ray images are combined to create a 3-d image
  49. What is this?
    Place head into powerful magnetic field, which aligns hydrogen atoms ( present in water). Then pulse the field w/brief radio waves, which knocks atoms out of aligment. Detect energy released (megnetic field) as they wobble back into place
  50. what is this?
    Relies on increased glucose consumption in active brain areas during particular kinds of info precessing
    - to track glucose, participants are given a mildly radioactive form of glucose
    - The brain is then scanned to detect the positrons
  51. How does a PET work?
    • Seeing- activates visual areas in the occipital lobe
    • Listening- activates the temporal lobes of both hemispheres
    • Speaking- activates portions of the motor cortex, the insular cortex, the middle cerebellum
    • Gererating- words trigger complex activations inclduing the left frontal cortex, the anterior cingulate, posterior temporal lobe, & the right cerebellum
  52. What are the advantages of fmri over PET?
    • - nothing injected
    • - provides both structual & functional info in one image
    • - better spatial resolution
    • - Can create 3-D images of activity over the entire brain

    - Both use subtraction technique
  53. what is this?
    Is a non invasive technique that stimulates the brain using magnetic fields. It induces an electric field in the neurons of the cortex below the coil to produce brain activity 
  54. What is this?
    Measures changes in megnetic field
    Provides higher temporal resolution of brain activity changes than fMRI
  55. What is this?
    A measure of the average electrical activity of the brain
    • EEG
    • ( some EEG wave forms assicated with: specific states of consciousness, cerebral pathology( such as epilepsy)
  56. Sensory evoked potentials are triggered by sensory stimuation, is an example of...
  57. what is used to position experimental devices w/in the brain
    Stereotaxic surgery
  58. what is a point on the top of the skull ofter used as a reference point?
  59. Lesion- Remove, damage, or destroy a part of the brain to observe impact on behavior
    name and define the four different types...
    • Aspiration-suction cortical tissue
    • Radio- frequency lesions- heat destroy tissue
    • Knife cuts- may damage surrounding area
    • Cryogenic blockage- reversible lesion
  60. Name and define the four different types of Electrophysiological recording....
    • Intracelluar unit recording- detects graded changes in membrane potential of a neuron
    • Extracellular unit recording- detects firing of a neuron
    • Multiple unit recording-firing of many neurons
    • Invasive EEG recording
  61. Measuring chemical activity of the brain:
    cerebral dialysis 
    • - inject animal w/radioactive 2-DG & allow it to engage in behavior of interest
    • -use autoradiography to see where radioactivity accumulates in brain slices

    Measures extracellular concentration of specific chemicals in live animals 
  62. locating NTs & receptors: dye or radioactive labels used to visualize the protein of interest-uses ligands of the molecule
    In situ Hybridization
    • - based on the binding of labeled protein specific antibodies
    • -immune response-antibodies created that bind & remove/destroy antigens( foreign proteins)

    Uses artificial ( & labeled) RNA that is complementary to mRNA corresponding to protein of interest
  63. removing a gene is called 
  64. This allows for development of gene but blocks its expression
    Antisense drugs
  65. Inserting pathological human genes in mice is...
    Gene replacement 
  66. What is the adv. of a single test?
    Used to defferentiate brain damage from functional causes
  67. What is the adv. of standardized test?
    same as single test
  68. What is the adv. of customized test battery?
    • now predominant
    • charaterizes nature of psychological deficits
  69. What is the WAIS test?
    • Wechsler adult intelligence scale
    • an iq test
    • often fails to detect memory deficits
  70. What is the language lateralization test?
    used to identify language dominant hemisphere
  71. What is the WCST ?
    • Wisconsin card sorting test
    • Patient must learn the sorting rule
    • Frontal lobe damage leads to repetitive guessing & failure to learn a new rule
  72. What are some common tests with rats?
    • open field test- general activity
    • Colony intruder paradigm- aggression & defensive behavior
    • Elevated plus maze- anxiety
  73. What are some common conditioning tests with rats?
    • Pavlovian- pairing an unconditional stimuls w/ a conditioned stimulus
    • Operant- reinforcement & punishment
    • self stimulation- animal works with electrical stimulus
  74. seminatural learning
    name and define 
    Morris water maze
    conditioned defensive burying
    Tests spatial abilities-rats must find hidden platform in an opaque pool

    • - following a single aversion stimulus delivered from an object, rats will spray bedding at the object
    • - antianxiety drug decreases the amount of burying behavior 
  75. What are the three layers of embryonic cells?
    • Ectoderm (outermost, forms CNS)
    • Mesoderm (middle, forms circulatory system, bones and sex organs)
    • Endoderm (innermost, forms lungs and digestive system) 
  76. what is this ?
    earliest cells have the ability to become any type of body cell
    Totipotent cell
  77. What is this?

    with development, neural plate cells are limited to becoming one of the range of mature nervous system cells
    Multipotent cell
  78. A structure dorsal to the neural tube and formed from neural tube cells
    Develops into the cells of the peripheral nervous system
    Cells migrate long distances
    This is the....
    neural crest
  79. radial migration and tangential migration
    are 2 types of what?
    neural migration
  80. Aid both migration and aggregation
    CAMs recognize and adhere to molecules
    What is this?
    Cell adhesion molecules
  81. Prevalent in brain development
    May play a role in aggregation and other processes
    What is this?
    Gap junctions
  82. what is the first to travel a route, interact with guidance molecules

    After that, other developing axons follow the established path
    pioneer growth cones
  83. what are presumed to guide connections across structures while maintaining the same layout 
    Topographic gradient hypthesis
  84. Formation of new synapses
    Depends on the presence of glial cells – especially astrocytes which supply the high levels of cholesterol needed 
    Chemical signal exchange between pre- and postsynaptic neurons is also needed
    is known as
  85. promote growth and survival, guide axons, stimulate synaptogenesis

    Nerve growth factor (NGF)

    is known as...
  86. Both passive cell death (necrosis) and active cell death (apoptosis) 
    Apoptosis is safer than necrosis – “cleaner”
  87. whole brain volume....
    Increases until about 16 years, then decreases 

    71 - 80 years were smaller than 2 years 
  88. gra/white matter ration.........
    • Decreases rapidly from 19 months to 50 years
    • Then decreases slowly
    • Due to decrease in gray matter and increase in white matter
    • At 4 yrs, we have 3x more gray matter than white matter.  At 50 yrs we have 1.6x more gray matter than white matter
  89. neutogenesis in adults....
    • Mature brain changes and adapts
    • Neurogenesis (growth of new neurons) seen in olfactory bulbs and hippocampuses of adult mammals – adult neural stem cells created in the ependymal layer lining in ventricles and adjacent tissues
  90. interactions betwn experience & brain development
    • Tinnitus (ringing in the ears) – produces major reorganization of primary auditory cortex
    • Adult musicians who play instruments fingered by left hand have an enlarged representation of the hand in the right somatosensory cortex
    • Skill training leads to reorganization of motor cortex
Card Set
Test 2 Bio Psych
CH 4,5,9