Nursing Level I

  1. Mechanism of action
    how a drug producces ites effect in the body
  2. Prototype drug
    drug model with which other drugs in its representative class are compared
  3. Chemical name
    assigned using standard nomenclature established by International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC)
  4. Generic name
    assigned by U.S. Adopted Name Council, easier than Trade names
  5. Trade name
    assigned by company marketing the drug
  6. Combination drug
    contains more than one active generic ingredient
  7. Bioavailability
    physiologic ability of the drug to reach its target cells and produce its effect
  8. Dependence
    physiologic/psychologic need for a substance
  9. Scheduled Drugs
    • classified according to their potential for abuse
    • I, II, III, IV, V
    • I=highest dependency
    • V=lowest dependency
  10. Controlled substance
    drug whose use is restricted by the Controlled Substances Act of 1970 and later revisions
  11. Schedule I
    • highest dependency and abuse potential
    • heroin, lysergic acid diethlamide (LSD), marijana, and methaqualone
    • limited or no therapeutic use
  12. Schedule II
    • high dependency and abuse potential
    • morphine, phncyclidine (PCP), cocaine, methadone, methamphetamine
    • used therapeutically w/ prescription; some drugs no longer used
  13. Schedule III
    • moderate dependency and abuse potential
    • high psychological dependency
    • anabolic steroids, codeine & hydrocodone w/ aspirin or Tylenol, and some barbiturates
    • used therapeutically w/ prescription; some drugs no longer used
  14. Schedule IV
    • lower dependency and abuse potential
    • dextropropoxyphene, pentazocine, meprobamate, diazepam, alprazolam
    • used therapeutically w/ prescription; some drugs no longer used
  15. Schedule V
    • lowest dependency and abuse potential
    • OTC cough medicines w/ codeine, diphenoxylate with atropine
    • used therapeutically without prescription
  16. Allergic reaction
    acquired hyperresponse of body defenses to a foreign substance (allergen)
  17. Anaphylaxis
    severe type of allergic reaction that involves the massive, systemic release of histamine and otehr chemical mediators of inflammation that can lead to life-threatening shock
  18. 5 Rights of Patient Drug Administration
    • 1. right patient
    • 2. right medication
    • 3. right dose
    • 4. right route of administration
    • 5. right time of delivery
  19. 3 checks of drug administration
    • 1. Check drug with MAR, when pulling it from storage device
    • 2. Check drug when preping
    • 3. Check drug before administering to patient
  20. Compliance
    taking a medication in manner prescribed by health care provider, or labels directions
  21. STAT order
    any med needed immediately, only given once
  22. ASAP order
    as soon as possible, within 30min of drug's written order
  23. Single order
    drug that is to be given only once, at a specific time, ie preop order
  24. PRN order
    administered as required by patient's condition
  25. Routine order
    usually begin within 2 hr of written order (hospital environment)
  26. Standing order
    written in advance of a situation that is to be carried out under specific circumstances
  27. Enteral route
    drugs given orally and those administered through nasogastric or gastrostomy tubes
  28. Enteric-coated
    tablets designed to dissolve slowly
  29. Sustained-release
    tablets or capsules are designed to dissolve slowly
  30. Sublingual route
    medication is placed under the tongue and allowed to dissolve slowly
  31. Buccal route
    tablet or capsule is placed in oral cavity between gum and cheek
  32. Topical drugs
    applied locally to skin or membranous linings of eye, ear, nose, respiratory tract, urinary tract, vagina, and rectum
  33. Topical differences
    • Transdermal
    • Ophthalmic
    • Otic
    • Nasal
    • Vaginal
    • Rectal
  34. Parenteral route
    drug delivery via needle into the skin layers, subcutaneous tissue, muscles, or veins
  35. Intradermal injection
    administration into the dermis layer of the skin
  36. Subcutaneous injection
    • delivered to deepest layers of skin
    • ie insulin, vaccines
  37. Intramuscular injection
    delivers medication into specific muscles
  38. Pharmokinetics
    study of drug movement or motionĀ 
  39. Absorption
    process involving the movement of a substance from its site of administration, across body membranes, to circulating fluids.
  40. Distribution
    involves the transport of pharmacologic agents throughout the body
  41. Affinity
    specific tissues/complexes have high attraction to certain medications
  42. Drug-protein complexes
    drug-protein complexes are too large to cross capillary membranes, thus minimizing distribution of medication to appropriate tissues
  43. Blood-brain barrier
    prevents specific chemicals and medications from crossing the membrane
  44. Fetal-placental barrier
    prevents specific chemicals and medications from crossing the membrane
  45. Conjugates
    added side chains, allowing for higher water solubility and more easily excreted by kidneys
  46. Hepatic microsomal enzyme system
    metabolism in liver
  47. Prodrugs
    medications that are not active until first metabolized within the body
  48. Enzyme induction
    Ability to increase metabolic activity in liver by drug
  49. First-pass effect
    important mechanism since a large number of oral drugs are rendered inactive by hepatic metabolic reactions
  50. Excretion
    removal of drugs in body, rate of excretion determines concentration within bloodstream and tissues
  51. Enterohepatic recirculation
    when expressed with bile, may be reabsorbed due to liver's affinity to reabsorb bile
  52. Minimum effective concentration
    amount of drug required to produce a therapeutic effect
  53. Toxic concentration
    level of drug that will result in serious adverse effects
  54. Therapeutic range
    Between minimum effective concentration and toxic concentration
  55. Loading dose
    higher amount of drug, given only 1-2x to prime bloodstream
  56. Maintenance dose
    intermittent doses given to keep drug concentration in therapeutic range
  57. Assessment phase
    Systemic collection, organization, validation, and documentation of patient data
  58. Baseline data
    data gathered to compare to later readings/measurements
  59. Subjective data
    gathering of data from what patient says or perceives
  60. Objective data
    data gathered through physical assessment, lab tests, and other diagnostic sources
  61. Nursing Diagnosis
    clinical judgements of a patient's actual or potential health problem that is within the nurse's scope of practic to address
  62. Planning phase
    nursing process prioritizes diagnoses, formulates desired outcomes, and selects nursing interventions that can assist the patient to return to establish an optimum level of wellnes
  63. Outcomes
    specifically define what the patient will do, under what circumstances, and within a specified time
  64. Implementation phase
    when the nurse applies the knowledge, skills and principles of nursing care to help move the patient toward the desired goal and optimal wellness
  65. Evaluation phase
    compares the patient's current health status with the desired outcome
  66. Medication error
    'any preventable event that may cause or lead to inappropriate medication use or patient harm while the medication is in the control of the health care professional, patient, or consumer'
  67. Medication Administration Record
    source that should contain information about what medication was give or omitted, includes list of drugs patient is on or has been on
  68. Polypharmacy
    patients who receive multiple prescriptions, sometimes for same condition, that have conflicting pharmacologic actions
  69. Medication reconciliation
    process of 'keeping track' of a patient's medications as they proceed from one health care provider to another.
Card Set
Nursing Level I
Pharmacology WWCC