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  1. What is a wound that is produced by a sharp pointed instrument that produced a small external opening, causes internal damage and usually has a poor drainage?
    puncture wound
  2. How do you control hemorrhage in basic wound management?
    apply pressure to arteries crossing bone, apply pressure to the wound, ligate bleeding arteries, administer agents to reduce clotting time.
  3. What amount of tetanus antitoxin provides immediate protection?
    1500 units
  4. Can tetanus antitoxin and toxoid be given at the same time to provide immediate/long term immunity?
    yes, the injections should be gievn in different muscles and different syringes
  5. When are parenteral antibiotics indicated in open wound management?
    severe flesh wounds for three or four days to control cellulitis, wounds involving synovial structures until joint capsules/tendon sheaths closed
  6. Upper leg wounds are difficult to bandage and bandages are of limited value, unless what?
    bones, nerves, or vessels are exposed
  7. What are the primary factors of surgical management of wounds?
    age, location, degree of contamination, tissue remaining, blood supply
  8. What age should a wound be to be considered for primary surgical closure, and what are the exceptions?
    less than 10 hours, exceptions perineum or head
  9. What are secondary factors of surgical management of wounds?
    prognosis for healing without surgery, tempermant of the animal, owners wishes, available facility
  10. What type of wounds can be closed using delayed primary closure?
    heavily contaminated wounds
  11. When is skin grafting indicated?
    lower leg wounds
  12. What type of graft is the tissue moved from a donor site to a recipient site on the same animal?
    autogenous grafts
  13. In regards to cosmetic appearance, what are the grafts from best to worst, and in regards to take, from worst to best?
    full thickness, thick partial thickness, thin partial thickness, pinch/punch/tunnel
  14. What is a full or split thickness grafts that are modified either in a special appliance or free hand by cutting numerous small slits in them?
    mesh grafts
  15. What is a technique that can be used to close a defect or remove a blemish where stay sutures are placed to markedly stretch the skin for 2-3 hours prior to closure?
  16. Greater than what WBC means infection?
    >50,000 WBC/uL
  17. When a wound is greater than 8 hours old, how should it be closed?
    delayed primary closure
  18. What are predisposing factors of excessive granulation tisse or "proud flesh"?
    minimal muscle mass, limited excess skin, continual irritation
  19. What is it called when the granulation tissue proliferates above the skin edge, it interferes with epithelialization and wound contraction?
    excessive granulation tissue "proud flesh"
  20. What usually involves the lower extremities, horses spending time in ponds, sometimes involvement of upper limb and mammary glands?
  21. What occurs almost exclusively in the nasal passages?
  22. How is phycomycosis definitively diagnosed?
    histopathology and culture
  23. Is phycomycosis zoonotic?
    yes, if infection involves arteries, routine treatment is amputation
  24. What is granulation tissue that does not respond to routine treatment, associated with warm weather, very small cores of exudate, associated with wounds, and in thin skinned areas?
    cutaneous hambonemiasis "summer sores"
  25. What is the cause of cutaneous hambonemiasis?
    allergic reaction to the aberrant larvae of the habronema species
  26. How is cutaneous hambonemiasis managed?
    remove the larvae, topical meds, control and remove the excessive granulation tissue, control the allergic response
  27. What can occur as a result of trauma causing periosteal damage, open wounds causing drying of the periosteum, application of caustics to periosteum or bone?
    bone sequestrum
  28. What can develop as a result of poor drainage of wounds that involve bone, hematogenous infection (most common in folds)?
  29. What commonly develops as a result of continued irritation from either physical or infectious causes?
    periosteal proliferation
  30. What can result from localization of a hematogenous infection, secondary to a poorly draining wound?
  31. How does an abscess develop?
    bacteria localize, white blood cells migrate, purulent exudate formed by living and dead WBC, bacteria and cellular debri
  32. What are wounds that reach a stage of healing and then dont get worse but they dont heal, possily due to animal in poor nutritional state, epithelial fatigue, chronic infection, overexuberant attempts to control granulation tissue?
    indolent wounds
  33. What is a wound that pumps the air, wound to the axilla are most commonly involved?
    subcutaneous air
  34. What is the most common skin tumor of the horse, develops in 3-6 year old animals, incidence decreases after 15?
  35. What is the possible viral etiology of sarcoids?
    bovine papilloma virus
  36. What are ways to definitively diagnose sarcoids?
    histopathology, PCR for bovine papilloma virus
  37. 20% of neoplasms recorded in the horse are what?
    squamous cell carcinoma
  38. What are the most common areas for squamous cell carcinoma involvement?
    exposed areas of light colored animals
  39. What occurs commonly in grey and chesnut horses, usually in animals greater than 10 years old, associated with fading hair, and frequent areas involved?
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