1. In curb, is the animal able to return to athletic soundness?
    usually yes
  2. What is an unhealthy subchrondral bone resulting in unhealthy cartilage, associated with nutritional excess, rapid growth, trauma, copper deficient diets, high Ca diets, high P diets, high Zn diets?
    osteochondritis dissecans of the tarsus
  3. What are the involved areas of osteochondritis dissecans of the tarsus in order of decreasing frequency?
    cranial distal aspect of the intermediate ridge of the tibia, lateral trochlear ridge of the talus, medial trochlear ridge of the talus, medial or lateral malleolus of the tibia
  4. In OCD of the tarsus, if the horse is lame or there is effusion of the tibiotarsal joint, what treatment is indicated?
    arthroscopic surgery to remove the fragments and curet the involved area
  5. What is swelling involving a subcutaneous bursa at the point of the hock, that is associated with a horse that is a "kicker"?
    capped hock
  6. The condition Fibrotic myopathy is most apparent when?
    the animal is walking
  7. What happens when the superficial flexor tendon attachments to the tuber calcis are disrupted, caused by rupture of the media or lateral (less common) attachment of the tendon to the tuber calcis?
    luxation of the superficial flexor tendon
  8. What is an idiopathic distention of the sheath of the DDF tendon, the distended tendon sheath is just anterior to the SDF, and there is synovial fluid without inflammation?
  9. What is an abnormal gait in which there are varying degrees of hyperflexion of the rear limb, associated with apstures in which there are lots of dandelions?
  10. What are common clinical signs of stringhalt?
    marked hyperflexion of the rear limb that is worse in cold weather, when animal turns or backs up, after the horse is rested
  11. What is a method of surgical management of stringhalt?
    lateral digital extensor tenectomy
  12. What is a condition caused by trauma, healing with fibrosis/ossification of the semitendinosis/semimembranosus or biceps femoris muscles which causes an alteration in the gait that is seen only when the animal is moving at a walk?
    fibrotic and ossifying myopathy
  13. When do OCD of the trochlear ridge usually become apparent?
    in young animals from 6 months to 2 years of age
  14. Which trochlear ridge is most commonly involved in OCD of the trochlear ridge?
    lateral ridge
  15. What is the age range for subchondral cystic lesions of the medial femoral condyle?
    5 months to 5 years
  16. In subchondral cystic lesion diagnosis, does articular injection of anesthetics result in a change in the lameness in most cases?
    no, the cyst does not always communicate with the joint
  17. In subchondral cystic lesions, conservative management is successful in 40-60% of cases, what is done?
    rest (turn out to pasture), restrict intake of concentrated feed, balance the mineral intake
  18. In subchondral cystic lesions, what is recommended for treatment if an athletic career is anticipated?
    curet cystic lesion, inject repositol corticosteroids into the cyst without curreting, reattachment of cartilage component with pins
  19. In this condition, the medial patellar ligament becomes fixed proximal to the medial condyle of the femur?
    upward fixation of the patella
  20. What should you consider for treatment of upward fixation of the patella, if conservative methods have not been effective?
    medial patellar desmotomy
  21. How can rupture of the peroneus tertius muscle happen?
    over extension of the tarsus and flexion of the stifle, blunt trauma, laceration causing division of the muscle
  22. When rupture of the distal portion of the peroneus teritus muscle, what is the best management?
    three months stall rest
  23. 90% of food animal lameness involves where?
    the foot
  24. Approximately 70% of foot lameness in cattle is associated with what?
  25. What is one of the most common causes of lameness in dairy cattle, has considerable economic impact (reduced production) spirochetes are implicated as causative agents, and animals in muddy holding areas are more commonly involved?
    digital dermatitis, "hairy heel warts", "Mortellaro's disease"
  26. What are erosions of the heel associated with marked pitting appearance, caused by subclinical laminitis in food animal?
    heel erosion, "slurry heel"
  27. What is it called in food animals, where the phalanges show axial rotation, not just of the claw, but of the phalanx, and is a heritable condition?
    screw claw
  28. What claws are most commonly affected in screw claw?
    lateral claws of the rear feet, medial claws of the fore feet
  29. At what age does screw claw become obvious?
    when the animal is < 3 years old, unlikely to develop > 5 year
  30. Can screw claw be corrected?
  31. What happens when foreign material gains access to sensitive tissue at the junction of the wall and sole (white line)?
    white line abscess
  32. How does white line abscess happen?
    wet conditions, trauma, housing where it is uncomfortable to lie down, facilities that require quick turns
  33. How can sole ulcers happen?
    excessive weight bearing, subclinical laminitis, excessive moisture, excessive wear, sole pressure causing ischemic necrosis, poor claw trimming
  34. Where are sole ulcers most common?
    on the lateral claw of the rear and the medial claw of the fore foot
  35. What is an infection of the soft tissue of the foot that can progress to the involvement of bones and joints in food animal?
    interdigital necrobacillosis, "foot rot", "foul rot"
  36. What is the etiological agent of Foot rot?
    fusobacterium necrophorum
  37. What is hyperplasia of skin in the interdigital space that is a greater problem in heavy cows and beef bulls, and more frequent in some family lines?
    interdigital fibromas, "corns"
  38. What type of sand hoof cracks are confined to the coronary band and usually associated with trauma?
    type I
  39. What type of sand hoof cracks run from the coronary band to the center of the dorsal hoof wall?
    type II
  40. What type of sand hoof cracks run the entire length of the dorsal hoof wall?
    type III
  41. What type of sand hoof cracks are rare, run from the center of the wall to the bearind surface?
    type IV
  42. What type of sand hoof cracks only involve the central region of the claw?
    type V
  43. What are hoof cracks that run parallel to the coronary band, and are usually associated with drastic changed in feeding or high fever?
    horizontal hoof cracks
  44. What breed of cattle is at greater risk of upward fixation of the patella?
    bos indica
  45. What is a wound that does not extend through the dermis?
  46. What is tearing without extreme loss of tissue, classic example barbed wire?
  47. What is a wound in which there is a considerable loss of tissue?
  48. What happens when ther is a no break in the skin, but deeper damage. Classic example is kick with considerable muscle damage and no break in the skin?
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