1. What is a degenerative disease of the carpal joint, associated with chip fractures and osteochondral defects in the cartilage of the carpal joints?
  2. What animals is carpitis normally seen in?
    2-4 year old racing animals
  3. How is carpitis diagnosed?
    lameness, distention of the carpal joint, increased pain with flexion of the carpus, palpation of the dorsal surface of the carpus, RAD evidence of small intra articular fractures or osteochrondral defects, intra articular anesthesia
  4. What is blood tinged synovial fluid while doing intra articular anesthesia involved with carpitis, related to?
  5. Why is conservative management not recommended in carpitis?
    fractures become stable, but frequently recur and horses commonly develop osteoarthritis
  6. What is ideal management of carpitis?
    surgical removal of fragments
  7. The prognosis of carpitis is good if what?
    removal occured shortly after fracture, no problems with conformation, proper rest and conditioning
  8. What are flexural deformities of the carpus commonly called?
    bucked knees, knee spring, goat knees
  9. What is flexural deformities of the carpus usually secondary to?
    painful condition which prevents full weight bearing resulting in shortening of the extensor musculoteninous unit, rupture of common digital extensor tendon in newborn foals
  10. What is a subcutaneous swelling over the dorsal aspect of the carpus, and is usually associated with trauma?
    carpal hygroma
  11. In a carpal hygroma, if the area is infected, what is the treatment of choice?
    surgical resection
  12. In carpal hygroma, what might be indicated to be sure that the carpal joints and tendon sheaths are not involved?
    contrast radiograph
  13. If carpal hygroma is not infected, what is the treatment method?
    rest and protection, drainage, injections of corticosteroids, atropine, and surgical resection
  14. What does paralysis of the radial nerve mean?
    inability to extend the elbow, carpus, and digit
  15. How can radial nerve paralysis happen?
    trauma, overstretching of the nerve, prolonged lateral recumbency, laceration of the nerve.
  16. What are classical signs of radial nerve paralysis?
    can not advance limb, anterior surface of fetlock on the ground and elbow dropped
  17. In general, radial fractures are what?
  18. How can non-displaced radial fractures be treated?
    conservative management, maintain horse with a spint or sling
  19. What type of fracture is common to occur at the time of breaking young horses to stand tied, and is also associated with kicks and falls?
    fracture of the olecranon
  20. In surgical treatment of fracture of the olecranon, how is a horse greater than 6 months of age treated?
    bone plate applied to the caudal side of the bone
  21. What is marked irritation of the bicipital bursa, caused by external trauma, extreme flexion of the shoulder and extension of the elbow, or infection (direct or hematogenous)?
    bicipital bursitis
  22. What is the treatment of non infectious bursitis?
    rest, NSAIDs, intrabursal corticosteroids
  23. What is the treatment of infectious bursitis?
    culture and sensitivity, antibiotic therapy, drainage, extensive flushing of bursa
  24. What is an adventitious bursa that develops as a result of irritation, heel of the shoe is commonly involved in causing irritation?
    shoe boil
  25. How are shoe boils managed?
    reduce irritation, draining and injecting the bursa with corticosteroids and atropine, draining and cauterizing the lining of the bursa, surgically remove bursa and close wound
  26. Why is it important to make the incision on the lateral aspect, not caudal, when treating shoe boil?
    minimize the tension on the closure
  27. What is a disturbance of endochondral ossification resulting in defects in subchondral bone and abnormal overlying cartilage?
    osteochondrosis of the shoulder joint
  28. What causes osteochondrosis of the shoulder joint?
    genetic predisposition to rapid growth, excess energy in the ration of young growing animals
  29. What is interruption of the nerve supply to the supraspinatus and infraspinatus muscles, result in marked atrophy, and initially results in lateral movement of the shoulder when weight is on the limb resulting in instability?
    suprascapular paralysis ("sweeny")
  30. How is sweeny diagnosed?
    visual observation of a significant loss of muscle mass of the suprasinatus and infraspinatus muscles
  31. In treatment of sweeny, what is a procedure which usually shortens the recoveyr time and reduces the amount of atrophy?
    scapular nerve decompression
  32. What is an osteoarthritis involving any of the 3 distal hock joints?
    bone spavin
  33. What 3 joints can be involved in bone spavin?
    digital intertarsal, tarsometatarsal, proximal intertarsal
  34. What are clinical signs of bone spavin?
    bilateral with one hock more involved than other, pain, reduced flexion of the hock, horse warms out of lameness, moves with lame leg closer to the midline
  35. Where are radiographic changes seen in bone spavin?
    present on the cranial medial aspect of the joints
  36. What are ways to medically manage bone spavin?
    NSAIDs, intra-articular hyaluronate, IM polysulfated glycosaminoglycans, intra-articular corticosteroids, firing/blistering
  37. What are indications for cunean tenotomy to surgically manage bone spavin?
    relieve pressure on distal hock joints and the cunean bursa
  38. What are ways to surgically manage bone spavin?
    corrective shoeing, cunean tenotomy, surgical arthrodesis of the distal hock joints, injection of irritants to destroy joint cartilage and produce arthrodesis of the hock joints
  39. What is a synovial fluid distention of the tibiotarsal joint?
    bog spavin
  40. Does bog spavin develop acutely or chronically?
  41. Bog spavin causes distention the the tibiotarsal joint which is most obvious where?
    on anterior medial aspect of the joint
  42. Does routine bog spavin cause lameness?
    no, if no other problems just cosmetic importance
  43. What type of intra-articular injections have been used to reduce the tendency for continued joint distention in bog spavin?
    depo corticosteroid, depo progesterone, atropine
  44. In bog spavin, if the joint has been distended for several days and has not been treated aggressively, will it usually regress?
    no, common for it to persist
  45. What is a condition of the neonatal foal, that is congenital, see swelling pain and excess angularity of the hock. RADs show degeneration of the 3rd tarsal bone?
    tarsal bone necrosis and collapse
  46. What is a desmitis of the plantar ligament on the plantar aspect of the hock, caused by trauma or poor conformation?
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