1. ionizing radiation
    • enough energy to knock electrons from atoms forming ions, capable of causing cancer
    • ex gamma-Xrays-UV
  2. high quality energy
    • organized and concentrated, can perform useful work
    • ex fossil fuel and nuclear
  3. low quality energy
    • disorganized, dispersed
    • ex heat in ocean air wind or solar
  4. first law of thermodynamics
    energy is neither created nor destroyed, but may be converted from one form to another
  5. second law of thermodynamics
    when energy is changed from one form to another, some useful energy is always degraded into lower quality energy usually heat
  6. natural radioactive decay
    unstable radioisotopes decay releasing gamma rays, alpha and beta particles
  7. half life
    the time it takes for 1/2 the mass of a radioactive isotope to decay
  8. estimate of how long a radioactive isotope must be stored until it decays to a safe level
    approximately 10 half-lives
  9. nuclear fission
    nuclei of isotopes split apart when struck by neutrons
  10. Nuclear Fussion
    2 isotopes of light elements (H) forced together at high temperatures till they fuse to form a heavier nucleus. Expensive, break even point not reached yet
  11. ore
    a rock that contains a large enough concentration of a mineral making it profitable to mine
  12. organic fertilizer
    slow acting and long lasting because the organic remains need time to be decomposed
  13. best solution to energy shortage
    conservation and increase efficiency
  14. surface mining
    cheaper and can remove more mineral, less hazardous to workers
  15. humus
    organic, dark material remaining after decomposition by microorganisms
  16. leaching
    removal of dissolved materials from soil by water moving downwards
  17. illuviation
    deposit of leached materials in lower soil layers
  18. loam
    perfect agricultural soil with equal portions of sand, silt and clay
  19. conservation
    allows the use of resources in a responsible manner
  20. preservation
    setting aside areas and protecting them from human activities
  21. parts of the hydrologic cycle
    evaporation, transpiration, runoff, condensation, precipitation, infiltration
  22. aquifer
    any water bearing layer in the ground
  23. cone of depression
    lowering the water table around a pumping well
  24. salt water intrusion
    near the coast, over pumping of groundwater causes saltwater to move into acquifer
  25. ENSO
    • El Nino Southern Oscillation
    • see-sawing of air pressure over the S. Pacific
  26. During and EL NINO year
    trade winds weaken and warm water sloshed back to SA
  27. During NON EL NINO year
    easterly trade winds and ocean currents pool warm water in the western Pacific, allowing upwellings of nutrient rich water off the West coast of South America
  28. Effects of El NINO
    upwellings decreased disrupting food chains, N US has mild winters SW US has increased rainfall, less Atlantic Hurricanes
  29. Nitrogen fixation
    because atmospheric N cannot be used directly by plants it must first be converted into ammonia by bacteria
  30. Ammonification
    decomposers convert organic waste into ammonia
  31. nitrification
    ammonia is converted to nitrate ions (NO-3)
  32. Assimilation
    inorganic N is converted into organic molecules such as DNA/amino acids and proteins
  33. Denitrification
    bacteria convert ammonia back into N
  34. Phosphorous does not circulate as easily as N because
    it does not exist as a gas, but is released by weathering of phosphate rocks
  35. Sustainability
    the ability to meet humanities current needs without compromising the ability of future generations to meed their needs
  36. excess phosphorous is added to aquatic ecosystems by
    runoff of animal wastes, fertilizer discharge of sewage
  37. photosynthesis
    plants convert atmospheric C (CO2) into complex carbohydrates (glucose C6H12O6)
  38. aerobic respiration
    oxygen consuming producers, consumers and decomposers break down complex organic compounds and convert C back to CO2
  39. largest reservoirs of C
    • 1. Carbonate rocks
    • 2. ocean (carbon sink)
  40. Biotic/abiotic
    living and nonliving components of an ecosystem
  41. producer/autotroph
    photosynthetic life --makes own food
  42. fecal coliform
    indicator of sewage contamination
  43. energy flow in food webs
    only 10% of the usable energy is transferred because useable energy lost as heat (2nd law), not all biomass is digested and absorbed, predators expend energy to catch prey
  44. chlorine
    • good- disinfection of water
    • bad- forms trihalomethanes
  45. primary succession
    development of communities in a lifeless area not previously inhabited by a life (lava)
  46. secondary succession
    life progresses where soil remains (clear cut forest)
  47. cogeneration
    using waste heat to make electricity
  48. mutualism
    symbiotic relationship where both partners benefit
  49. commensalism
    symbiotic relationship where one partner benefits and the other is unaffected
  50. parasitism
    relationship in which one partner obtains nutrients at the expense of the host
  51. biome
    large distinct terrestrial region having similar climate, soil, plants, and animals
  52. carrying capacity
    the number of individuals that can be sustained in an area
  53. r strategists
    reproduce early, many small unprotected offspring
  54. K strategists
    reproduce late, few and carried offspring
  55. positive feedback
    • when a change in some condition triggers a response that intensifies the changing condition
    • ex warmer Earth-snow melts - less sunlight is reflected and more is absorbed therefor warmer earth
  56. natural selection
    organisms that possess favorable adaptations pas them onto the next generation
  57. malthus
    said human population cannot continue to increase --consequences will be war, famine, and disease
  58. doubling time
    rule of 70-- 70 divided by the percent growth rate
  59. replacement level fertility
    • the number of children a couple must have to replace themselves
    • 2.1 developed 2.7 developing
  60. world population
    almost 6.5 billion
  61. US population
  62. preindustrial stage
    • first stage of industrialization
    • birth and death rates high, population grows slowly, infant mortality high
  63. transitional stage
    • second stage of industrialization
    • death rate lowers, better health care, population grows fast
  64. industrial stage
    • third stage of industrialization
    • decline in birth rate, population growth slows
  65. postindustrial stage
    • fourth stage of industrialization
    • low birth and death rates
  66. age structure diagram
    • brad bass=rapid growth
    • narrow base =negative growth
    • uniform shape= zero growth
  67. 1st and 2nd most populated countries
    China -> India
  68. most important thing affecting population growth
    low status of women
  69. ways to decrease birth rate
    • family planning
    • contraception
    • economic rewards/ penalties
    • education of women
  70. percent water on earth by type
    • 97.5% sea water
    • 2.5% fresh water
  71. Salinazation of soil
    in arid regions, water evaporates leaving salts behind
  72. ways to conserve water
    • agriculture- drip/trickle irrigation
    • industry- recycling
    • home- use gray water, repair leaks, low flow fixtures
    • USE LESS
  73. Point vs. NON Point sources
    • Point= from specific location such as pipe- can easily be found
    • NON POINT= from over an area such as runoff- more difficult to find
  74. BOD
    biological oxygen demand, amount of dissolved oxygen needed by aerobic decomposers to break down organic materials
  75. eutrophication
    rapid algal growth caused by an excess of N and P
  76. Hypoxia
    when aquatic plants die, the BOD rises as aerobic decomposers break down the plants, the DO drops and the water cannot support life
  77. Minamata Disease
    mental impairments caused by mercury
  78. primary air pollutants
    • produced by humans and nature
    • CO/CO2/SO2/NO/hydrocarbons/particulates
  79. negative feedback
    • when a changing in some condition triggers a response that counteracts the changed conditions
    • ex/ warmer earth-more ocean evaporation-more stratus clouds- less sunlight reaches the ground-- therefore cooler earth
    • basically the end result of change is opposite of the original situation
  80. Particulate Matter (source,effect,reduction)
    • SOURCE burning fossil fuels and car exhaust
    • EFFECT reduces visibility and respiratory irritation
    • REDUCTION filtering, electrostatic precipitators, alternative energy
  81. Nitrogen Oxides
    • SOURCE auto exhaust
    • EFFECTS acidification of lakes, respiratory irritation, leads to smog and ozone
    • REDUCTION catalytic converter
  82. sulfur oxides
    • SOURCE coal burning
    • EFFECTS acid deposition, respiritory irritation, damages plants
    • REDUCTION scrubbers, burn low sulfur fuel
  83. carbon oxides
    • SOURCE auto exhaust, incomplete combustion
    • EFFECTS CO binds to hemoglobin reducing bloods ability to carry O, CO2 contributes to global warming
    • REDUCTIONcatalytic converter, emission testing, oxygenated fuel, mass transit
  84. ozone
    • FORMATION secondary pollutant, NO2+UV=NO+O, O+O2+O3, WITH VOC'S
    • EFFECTS respiratory irritation, plant damage
    • REDUCTIONreduce NO emissions and VOCs
  85. radon
    radioactive gas, formed from decay of Uranium, causes lung cancer and is a problem in the Reading Prong
  86. photochemical smog
    formed by chemical reactions involving sunlight (NO, VOC, O)
  87. acid deposition
    caused by sulfuric and nitric acid resulting in lowered pH of surface waters
  88. Greenhouse gases
    • ex/ H20,CO2,O3,METHANE(CH4),CFC'S
    • EFFECTS they trap outgoing infrared (heat)energy causing earth to warm
  89. Effects of Global Warming
    rising sea level (thermal expansion), extreme weather, drought (famine), extinctions
  90. ozone depletion caused by
    CFC's, methyl chloroform, carbon tetrachloride, halon, methyl bromide all of which attack stratospheric ozone
  91. effects of ozone depletion
    increased UV, skin cancer, cataracts, decreased plant growth
  92. Love Canal, NY
    chemicals buried in old canal and school and homes built over it causing birth defects and cancer
  93. municipal solid waste is mostly
    paper and most is landfilled
  94. True Cost/ External Costs
    harmfull environmental side effects that are not reflected in a product price
  95. sanitary landfill problems and solutions
    • leachate liner with collection system
    • methane gas collect gas and burn as NRG source
    • volume of garbage compact and reduce
  96. incineration advantages
    volume of waste reduced by 90% and waste heat can be used
  97. Incineration disadvantages
    toxic emissions (polyvinyl chloride--dioxin), scrubbers and electrostatic precipitators needed, ash disposal (contains heavy metals)
  98. best way to solve waste problem
    reduce the amount of waste at the source
  99. Keystone species
    species whose role in an ecosystem are more important than others-- without which the ecosystem may crash
  100. indicator species
    species that serve as early warnings that an ecosystem is being damaged
  101. most endangered species...
    have small range, require large territory or live on an island
  102. in natural ecosystems, 50-90% of pest species are kept under control by
    predators, disease, parasites
  103. Major insecticide groups and examples
    • Insecticide Group Example
    • chlorinated hydrocarbon DDT
    • organophosphates malathion
    • carbamates aldicarb
  104. pesticide pros
    saves lives from insect transmited diseases, increases food supply, increases profits for farmers
  105. Pesticide Cons
    genetic resistance, ecosystem imbalance, pesticide treadmill, persistence, bioaccumulation, biological magnification
  106. natural pest control
    better agricultural practices, genetically resistant plants, natural enemies, biopesticides, sex attractants
  107. electricity is generated by
    using steam (from water boiled by fossil fuels or nuclear) or falling water to turn a generator
  108. petroleum froms from
    microscopic aquatic organisms in sediment converted by heat and pressure into a mixtures of hydrocarbons
  109. pros of petroleum
    cheap, easily transported, high quality energy
  110. cons of petroleum
    reserves depleted soon, pollution during drilling, transport and refining, burning makes CO2
  111. steps in coal formation
    peat, lignite, bituminous, anthracite
  112. major parts of a nuclear reactor
    • core, control rods, steam generator, turbines, containment building
    • Image Upload 2
  113. two most serious nuclear accidents
    • Chernobyl, Ukraine
    • Three Mile Island, PA
  114. LD50
    the amount of a chemical that kills 50% of the animals in a test population
  115. Mutagen, Teratogen, Carcinogen
    • Mutagen-- causes hereditary changes
    • Teratogen--causes fetus deformation
    • Carcinogen- causes cancer
  116. Tragedy of the Commons
    • Garret Hardin
    • Freedom to breed is brining ruin to all
    • Global commons such as atmosphere and oceans are used by all and owned by none
  117. Volcanoes and Earthquakes
    • at plate boundaries
    • Divergent-spreading, mid oceanic ridges
    • convergent-trenches and mountain ranges
    • Transform-sliding
  118. Factors that affect populatoin viabiltiy... Increase Viability
    • favorable environmental conditions (light, temperature, and nutrients)
    • high natality
    • generalized niche
    • satisfactory habitat
    • few competitiors
    • suitable predatory defense mechanisms
    • adequate resistance to disease and parasites
    • able to migrate
    • flexible or able to adapt
    • sufficient food supply
  119. Factors that affect population viablilty... Decrease viablity
    • unfavorable environmental conditions (insufficient light, temperature extreams, and or poor supply of nutrients)
    • low natality
    • specialized niche
    • habitat not satisfactory or has been seriously impacted
    • too many competitors
    • unsuitable predatory defence mechanisms
    • little or not suitable defence mechanisms againt disease or parasites
    • unable to migrate
    • inflexible-- unable to adapt
    • Deficient food supply
  120. r- stratigists
    • mature rapidly
    • short lived
    • tend to be prey
    • have many offspring and tend to overproduce
    • low parental care
    • are generally not endangered
    • wide fluctuations in population density (booms and busts)
    • population size is limited by density independent limiting factors, including climate, weather, natural disasters, and requirements for growth
    • tend to be small
    • type III survivorship curves
  121. K stratagists
    • mature slowly
    • long lived
    • tend to be both preditior and prey
    • have few offspring
    • high parental care
    • most endangered species are K stratigests
    • population size stabilizes near carrying capacity
    • density-dependent limiting factors to population growth stem from intraspacific competition and include competition, predation, parasitism, and migration
    • tend to be larger
    • type I or II survivorship curve
  122. Type I Survivorship Curve
    Late Loss
    Reporduction occurs fairly early in life. most deaths occure at limit of biological life span, low mortality at birth; high probablity of surviving to advanced age. Death rates increase during old age. Advances in parental care, nutrition, disease prevention, and cures including immunization have meant longer life spans for humans

    Examples: humans, annual plants, sheep, and elephants
  123. Type II Survivorship Curve
    Constant Loss
    • Individuals in all age categories have fairly uniform death rates. Predation affecting all age categoies is primary means of death. Typical of organisms that reach adult stages quickly.
    • Examples: Rodents, perenial plants, and songbirds.
  124. Type III Survivorship Curve
    Early Loss
    • Typical of species that have great numbers of offspring and reproduce for most of thier livetime. Death is prevalent for younger members of the species (environmental loss and predation) and declines with age
    • Examples: sea turtles, trees, internal parasites, fish, and oysters
  125. Factors that have reduced human death rates in last 100 years
    • increased food and more efficient distribution that result in better nutrition
    • Improvments in medical and public health technology
    • improvments in sanitation and personal hygiene
    • safer water supplies
  126. Equation for population change
    (Crude birth rate+immigration) - (crude death rate + emmigration)
  127. Replacement level fertility (RFL)
    Level of fertility at which a couple has only enough children to replace themselves
  128. Total fertility rate (TFR)
    the average number of children that each woman will have during her lifetime
  129. Factors that contribute to malnutrition
    • poverty
    • droughts, which will only increase as the impact of global warming becomes more severe
    • populations that have surpased carrying capacity
    • political instability and wars, which cause mass migrations
    • pestilence
    • forgein invastors who own large landholdings and whose sole motivation is profit (selling food to the highest bidder, which often means exporting)
  130. Types of agriculture
    • Agroforestry
    • alley cropping
    • crop rotation
    • high input agriculture
    • industrial agricultrue or corporate farming
    • intercropping
    • interplanting
    • low input
    • low till, no till, or conservation till agriculture
    • monoculture
    • organic farming
    • plantation
    • polyculture
    • polyvarietal cultivation
    • subsitence
    • tillage
  131. agroforestry
    harvestable trees or shrubs are grown amoung or around crops or on pastureland as means of preserving or enhancing the productivity of the land
  132. alley cropping
    • planting crops in strips with rows of trees or shrubs on each side
    • increases biodiversity
    • reduces surface water runoff and erosion
    • improves utilization of nutrients
    • reduces wind erosion
    • modifies microclimate for improved crop production
    • improves wildlife habitat
    • enhances the aesthetic of the area
  133. crop rotation
    planting field with different crops from year to year to reduce soil nutrient depletion

    ex rotating between corn and soybeans-- corn depletes soil of nitrogen and soybeans put it back in
  134. high-input agriculture
    includes use of mechanized equipment, chemical fertilizers, and pesticides
  135. industrial agriculture or corporate farming
    system characterized by mechanization, monocultures, and use of synthetic inputs such as chemical fertilizers and pesticides, with an emphasis on maximizing productivity and profitablity
  136. Intercropping
    to grow more than one crop on the same field, especially in alternating rows or sections
  137. interplanting
    to grow two different crops in the same field, especially in alternating rows or sections
  138. low input
    depends on hand tools and natural fertilizers; lacks large-scale irrigation
  139. low till, no till, or conservation till agricultrue
    soil is distrubed litter or not at all to reduce soil erosion, has lower labor costs, reduces need for fertilizer and saves energy
  140. monoculture
    cultivaton of single crop
  141. organic farming
    • form of agriculture that relies on crop rotaion, green manure, compost, biological pest control, and mechanical cultivation to maintain soil productivity and control pests
    • excludes or strictly limits use of synthetic fertilizers, synthetic pesticides, plant growth regulatiors, livestock feed additives, and genetically modified organisms
  142. plantation
    • commercial tropical agriculture system that is essentially export oriented. the local governmetn and foreign/international companies exploit the natural resources of the tropical rain forest for profit, usually short term economic gain
    • often involves the deliberate introduction of cultivation of economically desireable species of tropical plants at the expence of widespread replacement of the original native and natural flora
    • plantation practices include modification or distrubance of the natural landscape through such artificial practices as the permanent removal of natural vegetation, changes in drainage channels, application of chemicals to the soil, and so on.
  143. polyculture
    • uses different crops in the same space, in imitation of the diversity of natural ecosystems, and avoids large stands of a single crop (monocultrue)
    • it includes crop rotation, multicropping, intercropping and alley cropping
    • though it often requires more labor, has several advantages over monocultrue
    • diversity of crops avoids the susceptibleity of monocultrues to disease
    • greater variety of crops provides habitat for more species increasing local biodiversity
  144. polyvarietal cultivation
    planting a plot of land with several varieties of the same crop
  145. subsistence
    • agricultrue carried out for survival with few or no crops available for sale
    • usually organic, simply for lack of money to buy industrial inputs such as fertilizer pesticides or genetically modified seeds
  146. tillage
    • conventional method in which the surface is plowed which then breaks up and exposes the soil
    • this is then followed by smoothing the surface and planting
    • this method exposes the land to water and wind erosion
Card Set
APES Final and AP Test Review vocabulary