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  1. metaphysics
    what there is 
  2. epistemology
    what we can know, the study of knowledge
  3. logic
    what is a good argument
  4. ethics 
    how we should act 
  5. aesthetics
    what is the nature of beauty and taste 
  6. political
    what is the best form of government 
  7. an argument
    - an argument is a structured group of statements (premises) that are intended to provide support (reasons) for another statement (conclusion)
  8. deductive argument
    argument that provides conclusive support for their conclusion
  9. inductive argument
    an argument that provides probable support for their conclusion
  10. truth
    a property of statements
  11. validity 
    property of arguments, depends on the form of an argument, not its content, explains why in arguments, statements are assumed to be true
  12. sound argument
    valid and has true premises
  13. Modus Ponens (MP)
    • VALID
    • If A, then B
    • A
    • Therefore, B
  14. Affirming the consequent
    • If A, then B
    • B
    • Therefore, A
  15. Modus Tollens (MT)
    • VALID
    • If A, then B
    • Not B 
    • Therefore, Not A
  16. Denying the antecedent
    • If A, then B
    • Not A
    • Therefore, Not B
  17. Hypothetical syllogism (HS)
    • - VALID
    • If A, then B
    • If B, then C 
    • Therefore, if A then C 
  18. Illicit Conversion (IC)
    • - INVALID
    • If A, then B
    • Therefore, if B, then A 
  19. Disjunctive Syllogism (DS)
    • - VALID
    • A or B
    • Not A 
    • Therefore, B
  20. Affirming the disjunct
    • -INVALID
    • A or B
    • Therefore, Not B
  21. Universal Instatiation (UI)
    • - VALID
    • All A's are B's 
    • x is an A
    • Therfore, x is a B
  22. Universal Syllogism (US)
    • - VALID
    • All A's are B's 
    • All B's are C's 
    • Therefore, all A's are C's
  23. sufficient v. necessary
    • 1.X is necessary but not sufficient for Y.
    • 2.X is sufficient but not necessary for Y.
    • 3.X is both necessary and sufficient for Y.
    • 4.X is neither necessary nor sufficient for Y.
  24. Euthyphro Dilemma
    • -definition of piety
    • - piety is loved by all the Gods
    • - because it is pious or holy
    • -question: loved because it is holy, not holy because it is loved 
  25. Order of determination test 
    • - is virtue good because God says so (moral voluntarism), good is a moral engineer
    • - is God good because he submits to virtue (moral rationalism) God is a moral expert 
  26. moral voluntarism
    no morality without God
  27. moral objectivism
    morals do not depend on the existence of God 
  28. Dilemma
    • - VALID
    • A or B 
    • If A then C
    • If B then D 
    • Therefore, C or D 
  29. Argument by Cases 
    • A or B
    • If A then C
    • If B then C 
    • Therefore, C 
  30. Refuting a dilemma
    • 1. Go between the horns (Lincoln)
    • 2. grab the horns (athenian mother)
    • 3. construct a counter argument (Protoagarus, Euathalus)
  31. Reductio ad absurdum
    • - VALID
    • -indirect proof
    • - prove "Not A"
    • - assume A, show A entails B, show B conflicts/shows contradiction
    • Therefore, not A 
  32. Paradox of the stone
    • - Questions omnipotence
    • - can an omnipotent being create a stone so heavy that even that being could not lift it? 
  33. fallacy 
    • a mistake or flaw in an argument, fails to provide good reasons to support a conclusion
    • - often psychologically persuasive
  34. formal fallacy
    • makes an argument invalid
    • - all of the invalid arguments aka asserting the consequent, denying antecedent, illicit conversion......
  35. informal fallacy
    • undermines the quality of the argument 
    • - opinion
    • - convoluted meaning
    • - irrelevance/distraction
  36. begging the question
    • - circular reasoning
    • - the same statement is used for premise and conclusion
  37. faulty analogy
    comparison is flawed/incorrect
  38. fallacy of composition
    drawing a conclusion about the whole based on its individual parts ex: low monthly payments 
  39. fallacy of division
    argument fails in reverse direction ex: size of Plaza v. size of rooms 
  40. Reason for dialogues
    • - great literature/mimic
    • - the written word causes confusion, things must be discussed in dialogue
    • - Plato is the intelligence behind the characters
    • - dramatic/realistic
    • - philosophy occurs in dialogues
  41. Definition: Piety is to prosecute religious offenders 
    Problem: not a general definition, there are many other pious acts 
  42. Definition: Piety is what is agreeable to the Gods
    Problem: No universal consensus, definition implies a contradiction
  43. Definition: Piety is what is approved by all of the Gods
    Problem: Euthyphro dilemma. Gods love something because it’s pious, but not vice versa.

    order of determination
  44. Definition: Piety is a kind of justice, namely that kind which is concerned with the care of the Gods
    Problem: Gods are omnipotent, and don’t need us to “look after” them to improve them etc.
  45. Definition: Piety is caring for the Gods as a way of gratifying them 

    ex: we please them by giving sacrifices, and they grant our prayers in return.
    Problem: to gratify them is to do something that is pleasing to the Gods, i.e., what is approved by the Gods. This leads us back to the Euthyphro dilemma >> circle.
  46. D: Virtue is a plurality of examples
    P: all of them have one and the same form
  47. D: virtue is desiring good/fine things and being able to acquire those things
    • P: men can believe bad things are good
    • acquiring is not a virtue
  48. D: Virtue is to be able to rule over men
    P: you must take justice into consideration
  49. Meno's paradox
    • - inquiry is either unnecessary or impossible
    • - argument uses "ifs"
    • - but it must be certain that you either know what you're looking for or you don't know what you're looking for
    • - there is knowledge in knowing the answer, or knowing the question 
    • - not fully convincing 
  50. Knowledge as a true justified belief
    if true opinions are tied down by reasons, they become knowledge and remain in place, justified opinions
  51. rationalism
    • knowledge based on reason
    • PLATO
  52. empiricism
    • knowledge is based on experience
  53. anamnesis
    • - knowledge as recollection
    • - there is nothing that the soul has not learned 
    • - it can recollect the things it knew before 
    • - the search for discovering things for oneself: searching and learning together make up recollection
    • Plato
    • ex. Slave boy with the square
  54. Reasoning behind slave boy
    We have known these Forms all our lives. What we call learning is really only the recollection (anamnesis) of what was already known by the mind but forgotten because of the distracting influence of the body and the senses.
  55. one over many argument
    - they are all triangles but there must be something that is common
  56. argument from imperfection
    comparison from the reality to the ideal

    ex: a circle, you already know what an ideal circle looks like 
  57. whole pie model of the forms 
    • - something present in many things, fully, at the same time 
    • ex: whiteness of chalk does not change, it cannot be cut in half
  58. Forms
    • -eternal, fixed
    • - models for sensible things
    • - ideal/perfect
    • - yield true knowledge
    • - realm of being, exist independently of us
    • - MIND
  59. Sensible things
    • - constantly changing
    • - modeled after the forms 
    • - material/imperfect
    • - realm of becoming, only appearances
    • - yield only opinion
    • - SENSES
  60. relation between Descartes and St. Ignatius 
    • highest point of knowledge is intuition
    • -prayer/meditation
    • - put yourself in an environment to have intuition
    • - cleansing, purification 
    • - free himself from previous philosophical beliefs 
    • - a method for searching the truth
  61. senses
    • skepticism: senses fail at very far distances and microscopic objects 
    • cannot doubt: the objects that you can see right in front of you in a room
  62. imagination
    • skepticism: dream hypothesis 
    • now can doubt the objects in front of you
    • CANNOT doubt math
  63. reason
    • skepticism: evil genius/deceiving God 
    • can doubt math due to evil genius
    • CANNOT doubt existence 
  64. Dream argument
    • - While I am dreaming, I frequently have perceptions very much like the ones that I experience when I am awake.
    • -There are no definite signs to distinguish dream experiences from waking experiences.
    • -Possibly, I am dreaming and my perceptions are false.
  65. The Deceiving God argument
    • - There is an all powerful God who has created us.
    • - He has it in his power to make us be deceived even about matters of mathematical understanding which seem certain.
    • - Possibly, even my mathematical understanding of the world could be wrong.
  66. evil genius argument
    • - There could be an evil genius, who is capable of deceiving us in the same way we supposed God to be able
    • - Possibly, even my mathematical understanding of the world could be wrong.
  67. painter analogy
    • - a painter that paints hybrid creatures, half woman/half fish = mermaid 
    • - a mermaid is an imaginary creature but its parts are from real things 
  68. cogito
    • - I cannot be deceived about the fact that I exist and that I seem to perceive objects with certain characteristics
    • - Since I only can be certain of the existence of myself insofar as I am thinking, I have knowledge of my existence only as a thinking thing (res cogitans).
  69. res cogitans
    existence only as a thinking thing
  70. direct perception
    visually acquainted with objects in the world 
  71. indirect perception
    • flow goes from: mind to idea to object 
    • dualism, cannot go straight from mind to object 
  72. wax argument
    • - observations through the senses
    • - see the properties change while it melts, but it is still wax
    • - an extended object 
    • - know it through our understanding of the mind 
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