BIO FINAL: pt. 1

  1. kidney
    primary organ for regulating chemical enviroment and ion balance
  2. nephron
    functional unit of the kidney
  3. function of nephron
    • determines what is kept and what is waste
    • regulates blood pressure and pH
  4. glomerulus
    ball of capillaries that performs the first step in filtering blood from urine
  5. walls of glomerulus are:
    • semipermiable
    • non-selective for small particles
  6. ascending tube of Loof of Henle
    impermeable to water, actively (uses ATP) to transport Na+out of tubule
  7. descending tubule
    • permeable to water
    • water is recovered
  8. water moves out of the nephron and into tissues due to:
    osmotic gradient set by ascending arm
  9. ADH
    an atidiuretic released by the pituitary gland that controls permeability of collecting ducts
  10. collecting duct
    series of tubules and ducts that connect the nephrons to the ureter
  11. function of collecting duct
    participates in electrolyte and fluid balance through reabsorption and excretion
  12. happens when ADH is released:
    • more water is retained by the body
    • urine is more concentrated
  13. ADH is produced when:
    • dehydrated
    • low blood pressure
    • stress
  14. inhibits ADH
  15. where does blood enter the kidney?
    through th renal artery
  16. where does filtration occur?
    the glomerulus of the nephron
  17. what tubule is permeable to water?
    descending tube of Loop of Henle
  18. where are the highest levels of Na+?
    near the base of the ascending tube
  19. what does ADH stand for?
    antidiuretic hormone
  20. what does ADH production depend on?
    osmotic concentration of blood and blood pressure
  21. 3 times when is ADH produced:
    • during dehydration
    • when blood pressure is low
    • during stress
  22. in animals, what drives survival, reproduction, and fitness?
  23. what controls the body temp. and in what type of animals?*
  24. causes an increase in body temp., causing a fever*
  25. makes the fat deposits brown in hibernating animals*
  26. in brown fat deposits, why does the mitochondria produce only heat?*
  27. difference between climate and weather*
  28. in homeotherms, what does weather drive?*
Card Set
BIO FINAL: pt. 1
key terms and concepts