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  1. The mountain of motor development
    • Skillfulness
    • Context-specific Motor skills
    • Fundamental Motor Patterns
    • Preadapted period
    • Reflexive Period
  3. Disciplines influence Motor development
    • History
    • Scientific approach
    • Embryology
    • Biology
    • Experimental psychology
    • Developmental psychology
    • Medicine Physical education
    • Physical therapy
    • Physical biology and ecological realism
  4. The Maturational period
    • Motor development was set in the psychology field:
    •  Behaviorism was the dominant theory with emphasis on the preeminent role of environment.
    • Motor development is a behavior change
    • Gesell Arnold and McGraw offered a counterbalance:
    • Importance of biological processes
    • Interested in the process of development
    • For McGraw the CNS is crucial Researcher interested in groups
  5. The normative period
    • Motor development is set in the Physical Education : New influences
    • • Maturationists
    • • Needs of standard tests
    • • Loss of focus• In term of theory: dormant time
  6. Information processing period
    • Come back of Psychologists in the field:
    •  Perceptual cognitive processes (the brain is a computer)
    • Interest in the understanding of the process underlying changes
    • Schmidt :
    • The stimulus/response
  7. Ecological perspective
    • Come back of developmental psychologists Gibson JJ:
    • •Perception–Action approach:
    •  Body scaling and affordance
    • • Dynamical system approach: Kugler, Kelso and Turvey. Influenced by Bernstein N. (motor control and learning).
    • Rate limiter and controller
    • Come back to the process underlying the developmental change
  8. New perspectives with the interest
    • • Neurophysiologists
    • • Physical therapists.
  9. What is motor development?
    What ever your focus is you need a Developmental focus. Large knowledge.

    Own discipline and/or an area of specialisation

    • Motor development useful:
    • •Learn theories on the process of motor development
    • •Methodological problem specific to motor development
    • •Motor control and learning of any age
    • •Growth and motor performance across life span
  10. Frontal lobe
    Long postnatal development linked to evolutionary advanced functions. (decision making)
  11. Parietal lobe:
    Sensory information particularly determining spatial sense and navigation.
  12. Temporal lobe
  13. Occipital lobe
    Visual processing
  14. Cortico-spinal tracks
    direct between motor area in brain and spinal cord
  15. Extrapyramidal tracks:
    goes through ‘filters’
  16. Homunculus
    • Depicted by Penfield and Rasmussen (1952)
    • Graphical representation of motor organisation
    • Some area are bigger: mouth and hand.
    • Distal musculature is contralateral Proximal musculature is ipsilateral
  17. Cerebellum:
    • Lies outside of the cerebral cortex
    • -Connected to the brain stem.
    • -Processing center for-coordination,
    • -balance,
    • -equilibrium,
    • -posture.
  18. Basal ganglia
    • Deep in cerebrum
    • -Mediation between brain structures
    • -Function with dopamine Processing center for
    • -Speed of movement: hypokinesia or bradykinesia Akinesia
    • - Hyperkinesia
  19. Brain stem
    Autonomic function
  20. Spinal cord
    • • Descending fibers (motor) and ascending fiber (sensory)
    • - At the level of spinal cord reflex loop. Basic unit controlling motor movement. Reflexes
    • -Dorsal (sensory) and ventral (motor) roots Transport of fibers•Reflexes
    • .•Simple monosynaptic
    • •Complex: Knee jerk , flexion reflex
    • •Babinski's reflex
    • Big toe moves toward the top surface of the foot and the other toes fan out after the sole of the foot has been firmly stroked. The reflex disappear as upper motor control developsPlease see link http://proprioception.org.uk
  21. Brain development and neural plasticity
    • • Immature brain. Myelination after birth
    • Consequence: variability
    • Synaptogenesis
    • Embryo = overproduction of cells You need to use the cell if you want to them to survive Too many cells and connections, needs to remove some.

    • Experience dependant process
    • •Connection to area that are not used another example of plasticity
  22. Central Pattern generators
    • •Definition: neuronal network that produce rhythmic patterned outputs without sensory feedback.
    • •True for autonomic system.
    • •CPG are studied from patients with spinal cord injury
  23. NeuronalTheories
    • • Reductionists:
    • • Selectionists:
    • • Constructionists:
  24. Pathologies of brain development
    • • Autism: Strong genetic basis Excess of neuronal connection
    • Difficulties developing motor skills, throwing a ball, learning how to write, or running.
    • • Down’s syndrome: genetic basis late to reach the early motor milestones: grasping, rolling, sitting, standing and walking
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