1. Exam 3
  2. How is statistics used in the hospital and health care facilities?

    Internal & external uses...
    • Internally:
    • as a management tool for decision making
    • personnel and staffing
    • budgeting

    • Externally:
    • accrediting
    • state licensure boards
    • health planning commissions
    • physician training porgrams
    • nursing and allied health training porgrams
  3. types of data
    - nominal 
    • Also called categorial, qualitative or named data
    • Include numeric values assign to catergories
    • Example: Male =0 Female=1
  4. types of data
    - ordinal
    Represent rankings according to some criterion

    • Example: Severity of illness
    • 0=no risk illness
    • 1=low risk
    • 2=moderate risk
    • 3=high risk
    • 4=severe risk
  5. types of data
    - discrete
    Numeric values in which the number has meaning. (usually a whole number)

    Example: number of admissions by residence (city, suburbs, rural)
  6. types of data
    - continuous
    Continous data assumes an infinite number of possible values

    Example: charges(cost) or weight
  7. Methods of presentations: (differences & similarities) 
    - frequency distribution 
    • Allows nominal, ordinal, discrete, and continous data to be grouped into specific categories and the total number of observations in each category to be displayed.
    • Percentage represent the relative frequency
  8. Methods of presentations: (differences & similarities) 
    - bar graph
    • used to compare different things at one time or one thing over a period of time i.e the frequency of a variable
    • Horizontal (x) shows discrete category
    • Vertical (y) shows the frequency Image Upload 1
  9. methods of presentations: (differences & similarities) 
    - histograph
    • Used to represent frequency distributive with continous-interval data
    • Image Upload 2
  10. methods of presentations: (differences & similarities) 
    - know the difference between bar graph and histogram
    • Histogram is similar to bar graph, but horizontal axis usually reppresent the continous-interval categories rather than discrete categories used in the bar graph
    • Height of bar graph displays the frequency of each category
    • Histograms are used when the distribution of the data needs to be emphasized more than the value
  11. methods of presentations: (differences & similarities) 
    - pie chart: determine the angles
    • 360 chart
    • divided into sections
    • each section represents the frequency of each category (by relative frequency)
  12. Methods of presentations: (differences & similarities) 
    - frequency polygon/line graph
    • Displays continous data
    • Shows relationship between two variables
    • Horizontal (x)axis shows independant data
    • Vertical (y)axis shows the dependant data
    • the area under the polygram (line) displays the frequency
  13. methods of presentations: (differences & similarities) 
    - Rules for preparing a graph
    • Must have title
    • time period, if appropriate
    • author (who prepared it)
    • source of data (monthly stats, medical record, etc.)
    • date of graph
    • breif staetment, if special study
    • keep graphs simple
  14. Difference between a birth and a delivery
    Birth is the act or process of bearing or bringing forth offspring; childbirth ; parturition:

    Delivery expulsion or extraction of the child and fetal membranes at birth.
  15. ACOG/ICD-9 classification of gestational age
    • Early fetal death = less than 20 weeks (500g or less)
    • Intermediate fetal death = 20-27 weeks
    • Late fetal death = 28 weeks or later
  16. -          Available bodies (bodies included/excluded in the denominator)
    -                   - hospital autopsy
    -                   - gross autopsy
    -                   - fetal autopsy
    -                   - net autopsy
  17. Reporting Vital Statistics (points of distribution)
    • Births
    • Death
    • Fetal death

    Vital stats provide valuable information to private individuals, public health and welfare information, laywers, research and social workers.
  18. Calculations:
    ·         Includes: Length of stay (LOS)
  19. Calculations:  Average LOS
  20. Calculations: c-section rate,
  21. Calculations: consultation rate,
  22. Calculations: infection rate,
  23. Calculations: autopsy rate,
  24. Calculations: death rate,
  25. Calculations: occupancy rate
  26. 3 reportable statistics
    • Birth
    • Death
    • Fetal death
  27. Autopsy
    the inspection and partial dissection of a dead body to learn the cause of death and the nature and extent of disease
  28. Net Autopsy
    Only IP are included / Total IP -coronors cases
  29. Hospital autopsy
    # of autopsies for period/# of death of hospital available for hospital for that period
  30. Fetal Autoposy rate
    i & l fetal deaths for period/Total i&l fetal deaths
  31. Gross autopsy
    IP autopsied/total deaths (A&C, NB)
  32. Stats taken from Death Cert. helps who evaluate?
    • underlying causes of death
    • death rate trends
    • multiple causes of death
    • frequency of conditions that occur together
  33. Points distribution for fetal death form go to:
    • Copies to NCHS & local agency
    • Original to state
  34. Who is responsible for fillingout death cert?
    Attending physician
  35. Fetal death
    • i & l death reported
    • early fetal death reported only when mother request and a copy
    • attending physician to complete form
  36. What are the terms related to a frequency distribution
    • Range - diff. between high and low
    • Class - category of scores
    • Class interval - with/range within a class
  37. NVSS?
    • National Vital Stats System:responsible for official stats in USA
    • part f NCHS (Natl Center for Health Stats)
  38. Vital Stats
    refers to data compiled on crucial events in life: birth, marraige, death, divorce
  39. Steps to report Birth Certificate
    • Attending physician files out form (typed)
    • Copy to local registry (Austin,TX)
    • State registar gets original
    • Copy to Natl registar
  40. 2 parts of birth certificate
    • Information about child and parent
    • info on pregnancy
  41. Live births are classified by:
    • 1. weight
    • 2. age
  42. indirect maternal death
    a maternal death "not" directly due t obstestric causes but aggravated by pregnacy
  43. direct maternal death
    death directly related to pregnancy
  44. occupancy rates are used/computed for:
    • a single day
    • entire hospital
    • several days
    • change in bed count
  45. IP death
    death while an inpatient at the hospital, prior to discharge
  46. Mortality (def.)
    refers to death or being fatal
  47. postnatal/postneonatal (def,)
    period from end of neonatal to one year of age
  48. Partum
    • refers to childbirth
    • pre and post (before and after)
  49. Leave of absence
    away for short time, but returns to hospital before census taking time
  50. Beds excluded from bed count:
    • ER/ED beds
    • labor beds
    • PT beds
    • 23 hrs beds
    • outpatient beds
  51. Hospital patient
    receiveing services from hospital in person
  52. Inpatient bed count
    denoting the presence f one inpatient bed, set up and staffed , occupied or vacant, for a 24 hrs period
  53. Infant
    • live newborn til one year of age.
    • If infant dies, considered infant death
  54. Newborn
    a patient born in hospital at the beginning of life and current inpatient hospitalization
  55. Perinatal death
    includes stillborn and neonatal deaths
  56. Perinatal period
    perioed surrounding birth
  57. DOA (def.)
    Dead on arrival

    A patient brought to hospital with no sign of life
  58. Neonatal death
    newborn who dies prior to reaching 28 days of age
  59. Gross death rate
    All eligible deaths
  60. Net death rate and Institutional death rate
    deaths >48 hours or more after admission
  61. Non institutional death
    occurs less than 48 hours
  62. Deaths not in included in fetal rates
    early fetal death
  63. Outpatient death
    • deaths that occur in:
    • ER/ED rooms
    • inhome/hospice
  64. Deaths not includes in death rates:
    • OP death
    • ER death
    • DOAs
    • Fetal deaths
  65. Hospital fetal death 
    Death prior to expulsion or extraction from mother in  a hospital facility
  66. Fetal death
    fetus not alive at time of delivery
  67. Induced termination f pregnancy
    interruption of an intrauterine pregancyw/the intention of not giving birth to liveborn infant
  68. Maternal/OB death
    death of women within 42 days of pregnancy
  69. Maternal death
    woman who dies following an abortion or before delivery
  70. Puerperium
    42 day following pregnancy
  71. Neonatal
    newborn up to 28 dyas
  72. Premature birth
    applied to newborn with birth weight less than 2500grams
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