UMMC micro test2 8th

  1. What are the aminoglycosides?
    • Antibiotics that inhibit protein synthesis and kill bacteria
    • Will not enter anaerobic bacteria
    • Mainly used by IV route
    • Works well in conjugation with cell wall disrupting antibiotics because it increases entry into bacterium
  2. What are the Sulfa-Trimethoprims?
    • Drugs that block folic acid synthesis and stop DNA synthesis
    • Can kill bacteria in urine
    • oral
  3. What are the fluoroquinolones?
    • Drugs that affect DNA synthesis (prevent DNA from unwinding and duplicating)
    • Broad spectrum
    • Example is Cipro
  4. Explain what Enterobacteriaceae are
    • Gram negative rods in singles
    • All ferment glucose
    • Includes E. coli and KES (Klebsiella, Enterobacter, and Serratia)
  5. What is the number one cause of UTI?
    E. Coli
  6. What is the most frequent cause of pneumonia in alcoholics?
  7. What antibiotics treat UTI?
    • Sulfa-trimethoprim
    • Fluoroquinolone
  8. Explain what pseudomonas are
    • Gram-negative bacillus
    • Singles
    • Produce thick slime layer
    • Oxidative, non fermenters
    • Can make green pigments
    • Have inherent beta-lactamase activity
  9. What are the two most common pseudomonas infections for outpatient and inpatient?
    • Outpatient: cornea and otitis externa
    • Inpatient: burn infections and lower respiratory infections
  10. What type of infection are CF patients particularly susceptible to?
    Pseudomonas infections
  11. What is Cubicin?
    Anti MRSA drug
  12. What is staphylococcus aureus?
    • Gram positive
    • Cocci in clusters
    • pyogenic
    • toxic virulence factors
  13. What is the function of the mec gene?
    • Makes the active site for the cross-linking enzymes very small
    • Almost all beta lactams cannot fit anymore
    • Encoded for on SCCmec
  14. What is enterococcus?
    • Gram positive
    • Coccus in pairs or short chains
    • Lives in gut
    • Resists drying
    • Opportunistic infection
  15. What is streptococcus pneumoniae? (Pneumococcus)
    • Gram positive
    • Cocci In pairs and short chains
    • Sensitive to oxidizing conditions
    • Produces a capsule
  16. What is Haemophilus influenzae?
    • Gram negative
    • Pleomorphic – coccobacilli to filamentous
  17. What is Neisseria gonorrhoeae?
    • Gram negative diplococcus
    • Looks like two red beans
  18. What is Bacteroides fragilis?
    • Gram negative
    • Pleomorphic singles
    • Found in large intestine and mucous membranes
    • Produces a capsule
  19. What is mycobacterium tuberculosis?
    • Acid fast bacillus
    • Thin and rod shaped
    • Highly drug resistant
  20. What is MDR and XDR with regard to TB?
    • MDR: resistant to both rifampin and isoniazid
    • XDR: resistant to the MDR drugs plus resistance to a fluoroquinolone and at least one second line drug
  21. When infecting organisms invade host epithelium cells, the infection will not be cured using which one of the following drugs?

    A. Gentamicin
  22. Beta-lactams and aminoglycosides are synergistic because:

    A. Beta-lactam enhanced the penetration of the aminoglycoside into the bacteria
  23. VRE are:

    A. Cause opportunistic infections in hospitalized patients
  24. Which one of the following is incorrectly matched?

    D) MRSA - - - plasmid mediated resistance
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UMMC micro test2 8th
UMMC micro test2 8th