What are contraindications to breastfeeding? (4)
- 1. galactosemia
- 2. HIV in developed countries without ARVs
- 3. mother on chemotherapy
- 4. current substance abuser
What should infants be supplemented with right after birth? (3) After 6 months? (3)
Right after birth: vitamin K, if preterm may require fortifiers, vitamin D if mom doesn't get outside enough.
After 6 months: Add Zn, Fe, F (non essential)
How many extra calories should moms take in while breastfeeding? Can moms lose weight?
Around 300-400 calories.
Weight loss should be okay. Since excessive weight gain is associated with shorter duration of breastfeeding it is recommended.
What is recommended for pregnant moms? (5)
- Intakes of which should be increased? (6)
- What vitamin should be limited?
For vegetarian moms? (2)
- 1. Moderate exercise, low fat diet
- 2. Omega 3s
- 3. Iron supplement (30 mg/day), B9, B6 fiber, calcium, fluid, vitamin C
- 4. +350 kcal in 2nd trimester and +450 in 3rd trimester
- 5. Ensure not too much vitamin A
6. B12 and protein.
What should nonpregnant women make sure to do preconceptionally? (4)
- What should she consume? (3)
- 1. Modest weight gain/loss to normal weight
- 2. Consumption of antioxidants and omega-3 FAs and folate
- 3. Controlled PKU and celiac disease
What should lactating mom do? (3)
Eat same things as pregnancy, esp B6, breastfeed before exercise.
What are the percentile cutoff points for
1. weight for age? (2)
2. weight for length? (4)
3. length for age (2)
- 1. >90th percentile (monitor for healthy weight), <10th percentile, evaluate for failure to thrive.
- 2. >90th percentile (monitor for healthy weight), <10th percentile, evaluate for failure to thrive. >95th - obese. < 5th, underweight.
- 3. Length for age - < 10th - failure to thrive; <5th short stature.
Basically, weight for age (90,10), weight for length (5,10,90,95), length for age - 5, 10
What are issues with current state of infant affairs? (7)
- 1. Must improve fat composition (too much saturated fat)
- 2. Not enough fiber
- 3. Oversupplementation?
- 4. Decline of infant cereal consumption
- 5. Intro of unmodified cow's milk too early
- 6. Fruit and veggie consumption below recommendations
- 7. Need more research on requirements/UL/roles of vitamins, minerals for young children.