Entomology Exam 2

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  1. What are the 3 Main Components of Insect Reproduction?
    1. Both Sexes Present

    2. Diploid (by Meiosis) 

    3. Oviparous (Lay Eggs) 
  2. The three different ways of laying eggs?
    1. Individually 

    2. In Egg Mass

    3. In Protective Covering (Ootheca
  3. What Embryonic layer develops the (Epidermis, Nervous System, Trachea, Fore and Hind Gut)?
  4. What Embryonic layer develops the (Muscles, Fat Body, Gonads, and Heart)?
  5. What Embryonic layer develops the (Midgut)?
  6. What is the change from an immature to an adult in insects?
  7. What is the period between molts called? 
  8. What type of development?
    - Means "without change" No Metamorphosis 
    - Egg - Several larval instars - Several imaginal instars 
    - Adults will Molt 
    - Apterous (Without Wings) 
    - Collembola, Diplura, Thysanura, Archeognatha
  9. What type of Development?
    - Incomplete Metamorphosis
    -Egg - Several Larval Instars - Winged/Sexually Mature Adult
  10. What Type of Development?
    -Complete Metamorphosis 
    Egg - Several larval Instars - Pupal Instar - Winged/Sexually Mature Adult
  11. What group of cells in Larvae will develop into adult features? What do they develop into? 
    1. Imaginal Discs 

    • 2.- Wings 
    •    - Gonads
    •    - Antennae
    •    - Mouthparts 
  12. What is hidden inside a pupal case (After Apolysis and Before Ecdysis)?
    Pharate Adult
  13. What Endocrine Structure produces Peptide Hormone in the Brain and Ventral Ganglia? What are the Three Peptide Hormones? 
    1. Neurosecretory Cells 

    • 2.- Prothoracicotropic Hormone (PTTH)
    •    - Eclosion Hormone 
    •    - Bursicon 
  14. What is the tanning hormone that regualates the sclerotization process? 
  15. What 2 Hormones are involved in regulating the actual ecdysis event and associated behaviors?
    1. Eclosion Hormone

    2. Ecdysis-Triggering Hormone
  16. What is the Endocrine structure that produces the Juvenile Hormone?
    Corpus Allatum
  17. What Endocrine Structure produces Ecdysome?
    Prothoracic Glands 
  18. What Endocrine Structure produces Ecdysis-Triggering Hormone? 
    Epitracheal Glands
  19. What Hormone determines the developmental stage for the next molt? If present then the insect remains juvenile, if absent then a molt to an adult or pupae will occur? Where is it Found?
    1. Juvenile Hormone 

    2. Corpus Allatum
  20. What steroid hormone regulates Ecdysis Hormone, Initiates Ecdysial Events starting before Apolysis and is Regulated by Prothoracicotropic Hormone (PTTH)? Where is it Produced?
    1. Ecdysone

    2. Prothoracic Gland
  21. What is the Removal of Corpora Allata?
  22. What are the 3 Main Reproductive Organs of a Male? What are there Purpose?
    1. Testes-Produce Sperm

    2. Accessory Glands - Associated with Vas Deferens / Ejaculatory Duct 

    3. Spermatophore - Jelly like capsule which transfers sperm to the female 
  23. What are the 3 Main Reproductive Organs of a Female? What are there Purpose?
    1. Ovaries - Produce Eggs 

    2. Accessory Glands - Connected to Genital Chamber 

    3. Spermatheca - Storage of Sperm
  24. What is the process of Egg Development, Yolk Deposition, and formation of Chorion
  25. What is the Chorion of the Female Reproductive System?
    Egg Shell
  26. What is the process of Laying Eggs?
  27. What takes place just before Oviposition? What is occuring during this?
    1. Fertilization

    2. Sperm enters chorion through micropyle
  28. Ovaries are divided into multiple what? The main part of this section is called what? 
    1. Ovariole 

    2. Oocyte
  29. What is the Sex Determination of a Heterogamy? (XX=?, XY=?)
    XX = Female

    XY or XO = Male  
  30. What type of Reproduction has Development without Fertilization? 
  31. What is the Sex Determination of a Haplodiploidy?(X=?, XX=?)
    • X = Haploid Male 
    • - Egg Not Fertilized 

    • XX = Diploid Female 
    • - Egg Fertilized 
  32. What is it called when eggs are laid external to the mother?
  33. What is it called when the eggs are retained in the mother, as she gives birth to live young?
  34. What is it called when embryo recieves nourishment from the mother, may be an egg and she gives birth to live young?

    Example- Glossinidae Tsetse Fly and Aphididae
  35. What type of insect has one generation per year?
    ..........2 per Year? .........3 per Year? 
    • 1.-Univoltine 
    •    -Bivoltine
    •    -Multivoltine 

    2. European Corn Borer
  36. What is an Adverse Condition?
    Dangerous Conditions  

    Example - Temperate Climate = Winter
  37. What is the Direct Response to Adverse Conditions?
  38. Developments started in advacne to Adverse Conditions? What things affect this change?
    1. Diapause 

    • 2. 
    • -Day Length 
    • -Food Qualitiy / Quantity 
    • -Temperature 
    • -Hormonally Controlled 
    • -Life Stage Specific
  39. What are the two different types of Diapause? Description?
    1. Obligatory - diapause takes place regaurdless of environment 

    2. Facultative - Dependent of certain environmental cues
  40. What is it called when there is a distince difference in size or appearance between sexes?
    Sexual Dimorphism
  41. What are the 3 Main Digestive Sections of an Insect? (Gut)
    1. Foregut -  Cuticle Lined 

    2. Midgut - Have Peritrophic Matrix Surrounding Food 

    3. Hindgut - Cuticle Lined 
  42. What Digestive Structures are found in the Foregut? (4)
    • 1. Mouth 
    • 2. Crop
    • 3. Salivary Glands 
    • 4. Proventriculus
  43. What Digestive Structures are found in the Midgut? (1)
    Gastric Caecum
  44. What Digestive Structures are found in the Hindgut? 
    Malpighian Tubules 
  45. What Digestive Structure starts digestion and is used for extra-oral digestion?
    Salivary Glands 
  46. What Digestive Structure Stores Food?
  47. What Digestive Structure is considered a Valve and can Grind Food? 
  48. What Digestive Structure can hold Symbionts that Aide in Digestion?
    Gastric Caecum
  49. Were does Most Digestion take place along with Most Absorbtion of Nutrients?
  50. What Digestive Structure and Section Excretes waste?
    1. Malpighian Tubules 

    2. Hindgut
  51. What are the Two Ways of Symbiosis involving Microorganism and Insects? Examples?
    1. Live External to Insects - Fungus Gardens 

    • 2. Live Internal- Bacteria & Protozoa 
  52. Where do Microorganisms live inside and Insect, with Internal Symbiosis? 
    • -Digestive Tract 
    •          - Mycetomes = Specialized cells in Hemocoel 
  53. What is the Function of Symbiont Microorganisms?
    • -Provide Essential Nutrients 
    • -Aide in Digestion 
  54. What are the 7 Essential Nutrients that Insects Need? 
    • -Water 
    • -Carbohydrates
    • -Lipids 
    • -Proteins
    • -Vitamins 
    • -Minerals 
    • -Cholesterol 
  55. What Digestive Structure has Blind End Tubes that Connect the Junction of the Midgut and the Hindgut? 
    Malpighian Tubules
  56. What are the Three Types of Nitrogenous Waste Excreted?
    • -Ammonia - (Water Soluble but Toxic)  
    • -Urea 
    • -Uric Acid - (Not Water Soluble, Crystalize at Lower pH, Not Toxic)
  57. What Excretory Modification System is at the Distal End of the Malpighian Tubules and are Associated with the Hindgut? What Does it Do?
    1. Cryptonephridic System

    2. Dehydrates Feces Before Excretion 
  58. What Excretory Modification System does the Malpighian Tubules and Posterior End of the Midgut fold around the Anterior Midgut? What Does it Do?
    1. Filter Chamber

    2. Concentrates Nutrients by Removing Water for Excretion
  59. What Reproduction has XY=Male XX= Female?
  60. What Sex Determination has X= Male Haploid, XX=Diploid Female?
  61. What Respiration Structure is made of  Hollow Air Filled Tubes? 
  62. That is the Thickened Cuticle of the Trachea Called?
  63. What Respiration Structure is made up of Small Diameter, Contact Cells?
  64. What are Large Trachea Without Taenidia?
    Air Sacs
  65. What Part of an Insects Ventilation System is a Valve to the Outside of their Body?
  66. What is the Simple Diffusion of Gas through the Tracheal System?
    Passive Ventilation 
  67. What is the Forcing of Air Movement throught the Tracheal System?
    Active Ventilation 
  68. Why can Diffusion Account for Gases Exchange? 
    -Proper Concentration 

    -Short Distance of Travel

    -Every Cell is in Close Proximity to Tracheole
  69. What Type of Aquatic Gas Exchange is Being Used When Gills or Tracheal Gills are Present? 
    Cutaneous Respiration 
  70. What Stage of Insects Life do Gills Only Occur?
    Only When There Immature 
  71. What is the Thin-Walled Outgrowth of the Cuticle, Used in Aquatic Gas Exchange (Cutaneous)
    Tracheal Gills 
  72. What Type of Aquatic Gas Exchange Systme requires Surface Contact, with the use of Plastron or Spiracle Tubes?
    Open Tracheal System 
  73. Is Size Limitation of Modern Insects Related to Oxygen Supply?
    Increase in Tracheal Investment with Beetle Size Supports Hypothesis of Oxygen Limitation on Insect Gigantism 
  74. What is the Insect Equivalent to Blood?
  75. What Circulatory System Allows Hemolymph to Circulate Freely in the Hemocoel? 
    Open System
  76. What is the Open Body Cavity Found in Insects?
  77. Do Insects Have Hemoglobin?
    No, Except for a few Species
  78. What Are the Functions of Circulatory System? (5)
    • -Transport Nutrients/Waste Molecules 
    • -Storage of Nutrients-Trehalose, Protein
    • -Hydrostatic Pressure for Locomotion and Molting 
    • -Protection From Microorganisms-Immune System
    • -Protection from Freezing and Theromregulation 
  79. What Organ and Muscles are found in the Abdomen that Pump Hemolymph?
    Dorsal Heart With Alary Muscles
  80. Whats the Valve that allows blood into an Insects Heart?
  81. What Circulatory Organ is found in the Thorax & Head?
  82. What Circulatory Organ is found in the Wings & Antennae?
    Accessory Pulsatile Organs 
  83. Which Way Does Blood Flow in an Insects Body?
    Posterior to Anterior (Butt to Head) 
  84. What part of Hemolyph is made up of Water, Salts, Waste Molecules, Proteins, Amino Acids, Carbs, Lipids?
  85. What part of the Hemolyph is made up of Blood Cells? 
  86. What is the Function of Hemolyph (Hemocytes)?
    • - Wound Healing 
    • - Immune response 
  87. What Immune Response is Made up of Antibacterial or Antifungal Peptides that are Released into the Circulation? 
  88. What Immune Response causes Phagocytosis, Encapsulation, and Nodule Formation?
  89. What is the Regulation of Body Temperature Called?
  90. What Type Organism are Cold Blooded?
  91. What Type of Organisms are Warm Blooded? 
  92. What Type of Organism Rely on an External Source to Increase Body Temp? 
  93. What Type of Organism Rely on Internal Source to Increase Body Temp?
  94. What do most Insects do for Thermoregulation?
    Poikliotherms and Ectortherm 
  95. What Behavioral Activities that Insects Use for Cold Survival? (3) 
    • -Migration 
    • -Seek Shelter 
    • -Aggregation (Group Together)
  96. What Determines the Cold hardiness of an Insect?
    Physiological Adaptation 
  97. The Temperature at which Ice Crystals form Below 0 Degrees C
    Supercooling Point 
  98. Some Insects may be Resistent to Supercooling Point due to Presence of Solutes or Anti-Freeze Agents Like?
  99. What are the Two Strategies to Survival of Cold Temperatures?
    • - Freeze Tolerant
    • - Freeze Susceptible  
  100. What Muscles are all Striated and both Ends Attache to Cuticle? 
    Skeletal Muscle 
  101. What are the muscle of Internal Organs Called? 
  102. What Attaches Skeletal Muscles to the Cuticle?
  103. What Innervation send One Nerve Impulse resulting in One Contraction
    • Synchronous 
    • - Can be Direct or Indirect 
  104. What Innervation Sends One Nerve Impulse Resulting in Multiple Contraction?
    • Asynchronous
    •  - Indirect 
  105. What Locomotion has 3 Legs on Substrate at Once Forming a Tripod?
    Walking Insects
  106. What Type of Locomotion has Less that 3 Legs on a Substrate? 
    Running Insects 
  107. What Type of Locomotion is the Hind Legs the Most Powerful?
  108. What Muscles and What Type of Muscles are Used When Flying? 
    • -Muscles in the Thorax
    • -Striated - Skeletal 
  109. Muscle Directly Attached to Wing Hinge Region?
  110. Muscle Not Directly Attached to Wing Hinge Region?
  111. Two Types of Indirect Wing Muscle Attachement?
    • - Longitudianl 
    • - Dorsoventral 
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Entomology Exam 2
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