humans had the ability to think + reason + still be christians
- believe in god, don't just focus on being saved
- stresses the inwardness of religious feeling
- emotional connection w/ God
"Erasmus laid the egg that Luther hatched"
Luther takes Erasmus' idea + increases its importance
Martin Luther years
Where was Martin Luther from?
He was a German monk
Why does Martin Luther devote his life to God?
- plague kills his friends
- he almost dies from a lightening bolt
How many times a day did Martin Luther go to confession?
What was Martin Luther upset with?
the catholic practice of selling indulgences
- certificate from church officials
- lessen years in purgatory
- forgiven for your sins
- buying your way into heaven
Pope Leo X
- gave permission to sell indulgences
- (Luther thinks he's corrupt)
John Tetzel (monk)
- "As soon as coin in coffer rings, the soul from purgatory springs"
- first advertiser
Luther believes people are fooling themselves if they try to..
" bribe god "
- October 31, 1517
- Luther nails to the Church of Wittenberg
- criticisms of the Catholic church
Diet of Worms
- Holy Roman Emperor (Charles V) invites German princes + a papal rep to decide on Luther's fate
quote of Luther at Diet of Worms
"I am bound by the scriptures I have quoted + my conscience is captive to the word of God. I cannot + will not retract anything since it is neither safe nor right to go against conscience"
Luther is excommunicated
he is a heretic and outlaw
Luther's writings are spread by
the printing press
- protesting the practices of the Catholic church
- reform church
4 key questions
- How is a person to be saved?
- Where does religious authority reside?
- What is the church?
- What is the highest form of Christian life?
How is a person to be saved?
- catholicism- stressed faith + good works, the sacraments
- protestantism- emphasis on faith alone, no good works, 2 sacraments
Where does religious authority reside?
- catholicism- Pope is final authority
- protestantism- bible
What is the church?
- catholicism- hierarchy of clergy
- a protestantism- community of believers
What is the highest form of Christian life?
- catholicism- celibacy- no marriage + children, married to god, life of a monk
- protestantism- no celibacy, direct connection, personal