immune bio 3

  1. immunity
    resistance o infections by body to many types pathogens
  2. 2 types immunity
    • can be natural/artificial
    • active immunity: due to production antibodies by organism itself after body defense mech stimulated by antigens
    • e.g. injection vaccines made from attenuated antigens (fragmented, dead, weakened)
    • passive immunity: due to acquisition o antibodies fr other organism, which active immunity stimulated
    • e.g. via placenta, breast milk, injection
    • mention acquisition (passive) vs production (active)
  3. principle o vaccination
    role memory cells + graph
    • vaccine = modified form o disease causing pathogen stimulated body to develop immunity to disease w/o fully developing disease
    • attenuated form pathogen = antigens
    • based on immunological memory
    • can be swallowed/injected
    • vacc prod primary exposure + response so subseq = secondary response
    • Image Upload 1
  4. primary immune response
    • exposure to antigen through vaccine
    • clonal selection after 1st time exposure to antigen
    • primary response 10-17 days needed to prod max number antibodies
    • person may have symptoms, decrease as antibodies and t cells clear
    • not as severe as actual disease
  5. secondary immune response
    • if 2nd exposure, prod antibodies faster, 2-7 days, greater magn and more prolonged
    • antibodies prod in secondary resp have greater affinity
    • generated by immunological memory bc init expos prod active plasma b cells + t cells and long lived memory b cells
    • mem cells poised to proliferate and differentiate rapidly, eliminate pathogen bf illness
    • long lasting immunity
  6. production monoclonal antibodies
    • large quantities single type pure antibody made
    • antigens corresponding to specific antibody injected into animal
    • B plasma cells extracted
    • cancer cells obtained
    • cultured together fusing -> hybridoma cells tt divide endlessly and produce desired antibody
    • hybridoma cells cultured, antibodies extracted purified for use
    • Image Upload 2
  7. treament + diagnosis with monoclonal antibodies
    • treatment: injection with rabies vaccination for potential exposure to rabies; controls rabies virus until antibodies produced as result o vaccination
    • diagnosis: detection of HCG pregnancy tests in urine
    • = ELISHA test (enzyme linked immunosorbent assay)
    • enzymes attached that cause color change after antibodies bind antigens
  8. benefits immunisation
    • total elimination o disease + prevention epidemic and pandemics
    • deaths due to disease prevented = diasbility due to disease prevented health care costs decrease
    • prevent harmful side effects blindness, deafness
  9. dangers immunisation
    • diseases tt vaccines prevent are rate, parents worry more about vaccine than disease
    • dangers o vacc scare ppl fr vacc -> consequences for children
    • serious adverse reactions
    • -anaphylaxis
    • minor side effects
    • toxic effects mercury in vacc
    • possible overload immune syst -> excessive immunisation reduces ability o immune syst to resp to new diseases
    • e.g. soldiers during gulf war
Card Set
immune bio 3
bio immune