Lab practical

  1. 1.   Scientific method 
    • an accepted objective approach (not
    • influenced by personal aspects) to answering questions in the field of science.
    • This method of inquiry involves a series of steps that lead 2 a credible or valid outcome. 
  2. Mk an observation·
    • May b done frm wk already done or experiences·
    • May cm frm reading bout wk others hv done
  3. Ask a question(s)·
    “If I introduce a chng 2 d xperimental dsign that resulted in my previous observations, will it chng d outcm?
  4. Propose a hypothesis (possible question-&-answer, or “educated guess”)·
    Set up d hypothesis as an “if_____ then _______” statement.
  5. Test d hypothesis (set up an experiment or mk a new set of observations)·
    Set up a control group everything in this experimental group REMAINS D SAME, NOTHING CHANGES!·       Set up an experimental group everything EXEPT d ONE variable (d independent variable) you think is going 2 mk a diff remains d same.
  6.  Record ur results.
     B sure 2 record ur results exactly as u observe m. B as clear, descriptive & specific as possible. Determine if u r able 2 accept or reject d hypothesis
  7. Retest 
    ur xperiment’s results should b repeatable.
  8. Hypothesis educated guess 
    is set up in an “if___ the _____” format.
  9. Null Hypothesis 
    States that d treatment has no effect on d outcome of d experiment
  10. Experimental group
    group that experience d independent variable
  11. Independent 
    variable in control of d investigator. D ONE thing that chngs.
  12. Dependent variables
    result (effect) of d influence of d independent variable
  13. Control variable 
    variables that REMAIN d SAME 2 ALL groups in d experiment
  14. Control group 
     everything in this experimental group REMAINS D SAME, NOTHING CHANGES!
  15. Meter (m)  
    measures length & distance
  16.  Gram (g)  
    measures mass
  17. Liter (l)  measures volume (fluids/liquids)
    measures volume (fluids/liquids)
  18. Meniscus
    bow (arch) created by d adhesion of fluids (H2O) when using graduated cylindersMeasure from the lowest point for accuracy
  19. Know this
    Image Upload 1
  20. Field of view
    Circular field seen when looking through d ocular lens of a microscope.
  21. Total magnification
    combination of magnification of d eyepiece (10X) times d magnification of d objectives (4X, 10X, 40X)
  22. 10X x 4X = 
  23.  10X x 10X = 
  24. 10X x 40X = 
  25. Working distance 
    distance btwn d specimen (slide) & d objective lens
  26. Longitudinal sections 
    (l.s.) section that is cut along d long axis of a structure
  27. Cross sections -  
    (x.s. or c.s.) transverse cut through a structure, tissue or specimen.
  28. Whole mount - 
    (w.m.)placing a whole organism or specimen on a slide 4 microscopic examination.
  29. Wet mount
    used for microscopic examination of LIVING tissues or cell
  30. Steps to wet mound
    • a.  Place specimen on a blank slide
    • b.  Add a drop of H2O
    • c   Slowly lower d cvr slip frm 1 side of d H2O drop so any air bubbles will b pushed out as
    • d   cvr slip cms down.
  31. Cohesion
    property of H2O that mks its molecules attract 2 e/o. Responsible 4 surface tension (creating na H2O suface “skin”).
  32. Adhesion
    property of H2O, tendency of H2O 2 H bond 2 other compounds. Responsible 4 meniscus.
  33. Capillary action
    mvmnt of H2O wicked up a sml diameter tube due 2 adhesion.
  34.  Heat capacity
    capacity of H2O to resist chngs in temp.
  35.  Solvent
    fluid that dissolves d solute (i.e. H2O)
  36. Solute
    substance dissolved in a solvent 2 form a solution (i.e. sugar, salt)
  37. Polarity
     lk a battery w a + & a – end/side
  38. polar molecules 
    - i.e. H2O
  39. nonpolar 
    i.e. oils
  40. pH
    Is a measurement of d percentage of Hydrogen ions (H+) found in a solution.
  41. Phenol red 
    Phenol red is a water-soluble dye used as a pH indicator, changing from yellow to red over pH 6.6 to 8.0, and then turning a bright pink color above pH 8.1
  42. Covalent 
    Bond in which e- r SHARED btwn molecules, d stronger atom has more “pull”, d atoms bcm bi-polar
  43. ionic bonding 
    Bond in which e- r GIVEN or TAKEN btwn molecules
  44.  “TAKER” (In ionic bonding)
    molecule becomes (-) negatively chgd
  45. “GIVER” (in ionic bonding)
    molecule becomes (+) positively chgd
  46. Hydrogen bond 
    d WEAK attractions that exist btwn 2 or > polar covalent molecules. Also hold Nitrogen bases together in DNA.
  47.  Acetic acid 
    (vinegar) pH of 3 (STRONGLY acidic), increases d acidity level in a solution (turns it yellow).
  48. baking soda 
    pH of 6 (almost neutral), neutralizes d pH in a solution (turns it red)
  49. Organic
    (Carbon, Hydrogen, Oxygen, Nitrogen, PS) compound containing BOTH Carbon & Hydrogen
  50. inorganic molecules
    NOT consisting (or containing) of Carbon
  51. Benedict’s regeant
    • Rx 2 Carbohydrate (sugars). 
    • + test show tones of aoranges 2 browns.
    • - test remains blue
  52. Biuret reagent
    • Rx 2 proteins
    • + test show tones of purples
    • - test remains blue
  53. Iodine
    • Rx 2 starch
    • + test show tones  of purples & black
    • - test remains orange
  54. Sudan Red stain 
    Rx w Lipids+ test Lipids r stained RED
  55. Amylase
  56. All cell parts and their functions
    Image Upload 2
  57. Differences b/t plant and animal cells 
    • ONLY plant cell has:a.   
    • Lg central Vacuoleb.   
    • Cell wallc.    
    • Plastids (Chloro, Chromo & Amilo)
  58. Prokaryotic
    • a)   NO nucleous
    • b)  NO membrane bonded organelles
    • c)   DNA is circular
  59.  Eukaryotic
    • a)   Membrane bonded nucleus & organelles
    • b)   DNA is IN d nucleus
  60. Bacillus
    Rod shape (Tic-Tac)Image Upload 3
  61. Cocci
    Spherical shape (marbles)Image Upload 4
  62. Spirillium 
    Spiral shape (spring)Image Upload 5
  63. Gram Staining
    • Gram staining is a common technique used to differentiate two large groups of bacteria based on their different cell wall constituents.
    • + purple
    • - pink
    • Image Upload 6
  64. All 3 domains
    Image Upload 7
  65. Heterotrophic 
    organism that CAN’T mk its own food & can move to gt it. i.e umans& animals
  66. Autotrophic
    organisms tha CAN mk its own food (i.e. by photosynthesis), i.e. plants
  67. Binary fission
    is a form of asexual reproduction which is used by all prokaryotic organisms

    Image Upload 8
  68.     Conjugation 
    •  is the transfer of genetic material between bacterial cells by direct cell-to-cell contact or by a bridge-like connection between two cells
    • Image Upload 9
  69. Colonies-nostoc (aka Witches’ butter)
    Image Upload 10
  70. Amoeba
    Image Upload 11
  71. Paramecium
    Image Upload 12
  72. Trypanosome 
    • Causes d sleeping sickness, carried by tetsi fly
    • Image Upload 13
  73. Dinoflagellates
    Image Upload 14
  74.   Osmosis 
    Refers 2 d mvmnt of molecules through a selective or semipermeable membrane (i.e dialysis tubing) requires d presence of H2O
  75. Diffusion 
    movement of a solution from high 2 low concentration
  76. Hyper 
    low H2O HIGH solute, causes cell to LOOSE H2O (Plasmolysis/Crenation)
  77. Hypo 
    high H2O LOW solute, causes cell to GAIN H2O (Turgor/Lysis)
  78.  Iso 
    Balanced, SAME amnt in d cell than in d solution
  79. Hemolysis 
    occurs when the BLOOD cell swells &/or burst bcz they GAIN H2O
  80. Crenation
    refers to cells that LOOSES H2O
  81. Turgor pressure 
    refers to a plant cell that swells bcz they GAIN H2O, it can’t burst bcz it has cell wall.
  82.  Plasmolysis
    refers to a plant cell that shrinks bcz it LOOSES H2O
  83. Semi-permeable membranes
    one that allows some particles (molecules and ions) to pass through and it restricts d movement of others.
  84. Plasma membrane
     phospholipid bilayer, Fluid Mosaic, contains proteins that facilitate de passage through.
  85.     Factors affecting movement across a membrane
    • a.   Size of molecules
    • b.   Charge of ion/molecule
    • c.   solubility
  86. Dialysis tubing 
     semi-permeable membrane used in lab
  87. Relative size of molecules with regard to membranes 
    – Lg molecules can’t pass though while sml one can. i.e. Iodine vs Starch
  88. Stomata 
    opening “window” in d lower epidermis of d leave, facilitates &/or prevents d loss of amnt of H2O in d plant. Opens in turgor (turgid), closes in plasmolysis (flaccid).
  89. Guard cells
    • an epidermal cell 2 d side of a leaf stoma that helps 2 control d stoma size
    • Image Upload 15
  90.  Photosynthesis 
    6CO2 + 6H2O→Rx w (SUN LIGHT ENERGY)→products C6H12O6 + 6O2
  91. Phototropism 
    organisms that cant “move” i.e. plants. They grow towards d light source.
  92. Phototaxis w/Euglena
    (“takes a TAXI”) organisms that CAN move (i.e. animals &microorganisms) that are photophilic (“light lovers”) move towards d light.
  93. Chromatography
  94.  Starch in plants
    Image Upload 16
  95. Image Upload 17
  96. Image Upload 18
  97.  Emulsification –polar and nonpolar items 
  98. Eukaryotic Cells
    Image Upload 19
  99. Upper epidermis
    Image Upload 20
  100. Lower epidermis
    Image Upload 21
  101. Image Upload 22
Card Set
Lab practical
Bio lab review