Chemistry Chapter 23 Vocabulary

  1. an organic molecule that is involved in energy metabolism; composed of a nitrogenous base, a sugar, and two phosphate groups; ADP
    adenosine diphosphate
  2. an organic molecule that acts as the main energy source for cell processes; composed of a nitrogenous base, a sugar, and three phosphate groups; ATP
    adenosine triphosphate
  3. any one of 20 different organic molecules that contain a carboxyl and an amino group and that combine to form proteins
    amino acid
  4. the metabolic synthesis of proteins, fats, and other large biomolecules from smaller molecules; requires energy in the form of ATP
  5. an organism that produces its own nutrients from inorganic substances or from the environment instead of consuming other organisms
  6. any organic compound that is made of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen and that provides nutrients to the cells of living things
  7. the chemical decomposition of complex biological substances, such as carbohydrates, proteins, and glycogen, accompanied by the release of energy
  8. an organism that is produced by asexual reproduction and that is genetically identical to its parent; to make a genetic duplicate
  9. a chemical reaction in which two or more molecules combine to produce water or another simple molecule
    condensation reaction
  10. to change irreversibly the structure or shape—and thus the solubility and other properties—of a protein by heating, shaking, or treating the protein with acid, alkali, or other species
  11. a sugar formed from two monosaccharides
  12. the process of making a copy of DNA
    DNA replication
  13. a type of protein that speeds up metabolic reactions in plants and animals without being permanently changed or destroyed
  14. an organic acid that is contained in lipids, such as fats or oils
    fatty acid
  15. an organism that obtains organic food molecules by eating other organisms or their byproducts and that cannot synthesize organic compounds from inorganic materials
  16. a chemical reaction between water and another substance to form two or more new substances; a reaction between water and a salt to create an acid or a base
  17. a type of biochemical that does not dissolve in water, including fats and steroids; lipids store energy and make up cell membranes
  18. the sum of all chemical processes that occur in an organism
  19. a simple sugar that is the basic subunit of a carbohydrate
  20. an organic compound, either RNA or DNA, whose molecules are made up of one or two chains of nucleotides and carry genetic information
    nucleic acid
  21. one of the carbohydrates made up of long chains of simple sugars; polysaccharides include starch, cellulose, and glycogen
  22. an organic compound that is made of one or more chains of amino acids and that is a principal component of all cells
  23. a chemical reaction in which esters of fatty acids react with a strong base to produce glycerol and a fatty acid salt; the process that is used to make soap
Card Set
Chemistry Chapter 23 Vocabulary
Chemistry Vocab