1. 4 Goals of Developmental Psycology
    Describe, Explain, Predict, Modify
  2. 5 theoretical perspectives on human development
    Psychoanalytic, Learning, Cognitive, Contextual, Evolutionary
  3. Being shaped by unconsious forces, and those forces motivate human behavior
  4. Freudian parts of personality
    Id, Ego, Superego
  5. 2 theorys for Psychoanalytic perspective
    • Freudian Psychosexual Stages
    • Erik Eriksons Psychosocial Development
  6. Neo-Frudian
    Emphesized influence on society
    Development is lifelong
    Psychosocial Development
  7. Changes in behavor result from experience or from adapation to the environment
  8. We respond based on if a situation is painful, threatening, or pleasurable
  9. Conditioning of Fear
    John Watson
  10. Classical Conditioning
    Pavlovs dog
  11. Operent Conditioning
    B. F. Skinner
  12. Individual learns the consequences of operating on the environment. 
    There is a learned relationship between behavior and its consequences.
    Operant Conditioning
  13. increases the likelihood of a behavior occuring
  14. Giving a reward
    Positive reinforcement
  15. Removing something adversive
    Negative Reinforcement
  16. Decreasing the likelihood of a behavior occuring
  17. Adding something adversive
    Positive Punishment
  18. Removing something pleasant
    Negative Punishment
  19. Social Learning Theory
    Albert Bandura
  20. Development is bidirectional
    Social Learning Theory
  21. Person acts on world as the world acts on a person
    Reciprocal determinism
  22. Children choose who to imitate
    Observational Learning or Modeling
  23. View that thought processes are central to development
  24. Theorys relative to Cognitive perspective
    Piaget's cognitive stage theory, Lev Vygotsky's Sociocultural Theory
  25. A tendency to create complex cognitive structures or schemes
    Piagetian Cognitive growth- Organization
  26. Organized patterns of behavior used to think and act in a situation
    -Infants suck bottles and thumbs
  27. How children can handle familiar information
    Piagetian Cognitive Growth: Adaption

    -has 2 prosses
  28. Incorporating new info into existing schemes
    -An Adaption process
  29. Changing structures to include new information
    An Adaption process
  30. Vygotsky's term for the difference between what a child can do alone and what the child can do with help.
    related to Lev Vygotsky's Sociocultural Theory
    Zone of proximal development
  31. The temporary support to help a child master a task
  32. View that sees the individual as inseparable from the social context
  33. Theory of Contextual Perspective
    Brofenbrenners 5 contextual systems- Bioecological theory
  34. Development can only be understood in its social contexts
    Describes range of interacting influences that affect development
    Identifies contexts that stifle or promote growth
    Bioecological theory
  35. everyday environment
  36. Interlocking of microsystems to understand why things happen
  37. linkages between a microsystem and the outside system
  38. Overarching cultural patterns
  39. Change or constancy in a person and environment
  40. View that focuses on evolutionary and biological bases of behavior
  41. Theories related to Evolutionary Perspective
    • Darwins evolutionary Theory
    • Evolutionary Psycology
  42. Survival of the Fittest
    Natural Selection
    Darwins evolutionary theory
  43. The study of distinctive adaptive behaviors of the animal species
    -innate behaviors evolved to increase survival odds
    -why squirrels barry nuts
  44. How biology and environment interact to produce behavior and development
    Evolutionary Psycology
  45. What is the result of humans unconsiously striving for personal survival and genetic legacy?
    • A developmet of mechanisms evolved to solve problems
    • -Morning sickness actually protects the fetus
  46. The union of sperm and ovum to produce a single-celled zygote
    Also called conception
  47. One egg, One sperm
    Identical Twins
    Share 100% of the genes
  48. 2 eggs, 2 sperm
    More common
    Fraternal twins
    share 50% of genes
  49. Coils of DNA carrying genes
  50. 22 paris not related to sexual expression
  51. 1 pair determining sex
    XX= female
    XY= male
    Sex chromosomes
  52. Two or more alternative forms of a gene that occupy the same position on paired chromosomes and affect the same trait.
  53. Identical copies of a gene
    Homozygous allele
  54. Different copies of a gene
    Heterozygous alleles
  55. Heterozygosity, with dominant allele
    Dominant Inheritance
  56. Homozygosity, with no dominant allele
    Recessive Inheritance
  57. Actual genetic makeup or allele combinations
    -Tongue curling ability DD or Dd
  58. Observable expression of genetic make-up
    Product of genotype
  59. Send and receive information
  60. Nourish and protect neurons
  61. Chemical messengers
  62. Gatty substance that helps send faster signals
  63. 2 processes of Neuronal growth
    • Integration
    • Differentiation
  64. Neurons that control groups of muscles
  65. Each neuron takes on a specialized function
  66. Obtained by holding baby's head and sholders off the mat with arms half in flexion on the chest. Examiner suddenly lets the head and shoulders drop back a few inches whie releasing the arms. The arms should dully abduct and extend, and return toward the midline with the hand open and the thumb and index finger forming a C shape. 
    Absent or incomplete is seen in upper motor neuron lesions
    Moro reflex
  67. The tendency of young infants to grasp a bar and hang suspended. Is also known as grasping reflex
    Darwinian reflex
  68. Elicited when the head of a relaxed child, lying on his back, is roated to the side. The arm toward which the infant is facing extends straight away from the body with the hand partially open, while the arm on the side away from the face is flexed and the fist is clenched tightly. Teversing the direction reverses the posituon. Is often described as the fencers' position
    Tonic Reflex
  69. Is elicited by stroking the cheek. The infant will turn toward the side that was stroked and begin to make sucking motions with its mouth.
    Rooting Reflex
  70. Occurs when the big toe moves toward the top surface of the foot and the other toes fan out after the sole of he foot has been firmly stroked.
    Babkin and Babinski Reflex
  71. Is the one that unconditionally, naturally, and automaticly triggers a response
    Unconditioned Stimulus
  72. Is the unlearned response that occurs naturally in response to UCS
    Unconditioned Response
  73. Is previously neutral stimulus that after becoming associated with the UCS, eventually comes to trigger a conditioned response.
    Conditioned Stimulus
  74. Is the learned response to the previously neutral stimulus
    Conditioned Response
  75. Refers to the fact that, if the CS and UCS are not paired for a given number of trials, an organism will stop exhibiting the CR
  76. The phase where the consistant pairings of the CS and UCS that produce a CR
  77. The case where stimuli that are like the conditioned stimulus come to elicit the same response
  78. The opposite of generalization, happens when a CR foes not  occur when there is a difference between the presented stimulus and the original conditioned stimulus
  79. The re-occurance of a classically conditioned response after extinction has occured
    Spontaneous Recovery
  80. The time difference between the conditioned stimulus and the unconditioned stimulus
  81. Piaget's first stage of cognitive development, in which infants learn through senses and motor activity
    Sensorimotor Stage
  82. Piaget's term for organized patterns of thought and behavior used in particular situations
    Circular Reactions
  83. Organized patterns of thought and behavior used in particular situation
  84. 4 types of imitation
    Invisible, Visible, Deferred, Elicited
  85. A type of imitation where the parent uses body parts baby can't see- like the mouth
  86. Type of imitation where they use hands and feet, parts the baby can see
  87. Type of imitation where it is imitation after a delay
  88. Imitating based on explanation only
  89. Realizing an object exists even when out of sight
    Object Permanence
  90. Object permanence - 3 stages
    • Prior to 8 mo- If I drop my toy and I cant see it, its gone- peek a boo
    • 8-12 mo- You hid my toy, i will look in the last place I saw it.
    • After a year- You hid my toy... im looking for it
  91. Not about what babies know, but about what they do and why
    Dynamic systems theory
  92. Ability to understand the nature of pictures
    -Develops about 19 mo of age
    -seeing a picture of a sun and saying suh
    Pictoral Competence- Representational Thinking
  93. 3 types of memory
    • Explicit
    • Implicit
    • Working
  94. A type of memory, where it is conscious or intensional
    -facts, names, events
  95. A type of memory, where there is unconscious recall
    -Habits and skills, procedural memory
  96. Type of memory that is short term storage of active information
  97. Brain has the innate capacity to learn language
    -LAD (Language Acquisition Device)
    Chomsky's Nativism
  98. Three Temperments
    • Easy
    • Slow to warm up
    • Difficult
  99. Generally happy, responds well to change and novelty
  100. Generally mild reactions, hesitant about new experiences
    Slow to Warm up
  101. Irratable, Intense emotional responses
  102. Adjustment is easiest when the child's terperament matches the situation
    -Physically, Socially, Culturally
    Goodness of Fit
  103. Basic trust vs Basic mistrust
    Newborns develop a sense of reliablity of people and objects.
    Virtue in hope
    - Can I count on you to feed me when I'm hungry
    Erik Erikson's stage 1
  104. Recriprocal and enduring bond between child and caregiver
  105. Pattern in which an infant cries or protests when the primary caregiver leaves and actively seeks out the caregiver on his or her return
    Secure attachment
  106. Pattern in which an infant rarely cries when separated from the primary caregiver and avoids contact on his or her return
    Avoidant attachment
  107. Pattern in which an infant becomes anxious before the primary caregiver leaves, is extremly upset during his or her absence, and both seeks and resists contact on his or her own.
    Ambivalent (resistant) attachment
  108. Pattern in which an infant, after separation from the primary caregiver, shows contradictory, repetitous, or miscirected behaviors on his or her return.
    Disorganized-disoriented attachment
  109. Automy vs Shame
    A shift from external control to self control
    Virtue: trust
    Erik Erikson's stage 2
  110. 18mo-3 years
    A shift from external control to self-control
    Emerges from trust and self awareness
    The terrible twos
  111. Helps toddler recognize need for limits
    Shame and doubt
  112. The second major stage of cognitive development in whuch symbolic thought expands but children cannot yet use logic. Extends between 2 and 6 years
    Peroperational Stage
  113. Piagets term for ability to use mental representations (words, numbers, or images) to which a child has attached meaning.
    Symbolic function
  114. Mentally liking a phenomena, whether logical or not
    -My parents got a divorce because I was bad

    Familiar settings help advance causality
    - I am quiet so I wont wake the baby
  115. The tendency to attribute life to inanimate objects
    -The cloud is smiling at me

    Familiarity increases accuracy
    -I know that person is different from my doll
  116. Immature Aspects of Preoperational Thought
    Centration and Egocentrism
  117. Tendency to focus on one aspect of a situation and neglect others
  118. Inability to consider another person's point of view, a characteristic of young children's thought
  119. Thinking simultaneously about several aspects of a situation. Inability to decenter leads to illogical conclusions.
  120. Something remains the same even if its appearance is altered, such as mass, liquid, length, number, area, volume.
  121. The child is aware of their thought processes, Understanding that people can hold false beliefs and deception skills.
    -Distinguishing appearance vs relality and fantasy vs relality
    -Childrens awareness to their on mental processes and those of other people
    -Preschoolers believe that mental ability starts and stops
    -My middle childhood, understand that activity is continuous
    Theory of Mind
  122. 3 steps of memory
    • Encoding
    • Storage 
    • Retrieval
  123. Process by which info is prepared for long-term storage and later retrival.
  124. Retention of info in memory for future use
  125. Process by which info is accessed or recalled from memory
  126. 4 types of memory
    • Sensory
    • Short term
    • Working
    • Long term- has 4 types in here
  127. Initial, brief, temporary storage of sensory information
    Sensory memory
  128. Refers to memories, which last for a few minutes
    Short-term memory
  129. Showt term storage of info being actively processed
    Working Memory
  130. Conscious control of thoughts, emotions, and actions to accomplish goals or solve problems
    Executive function
  131. In Baddeley's model, element of working memory that controls the processing of info.
    Central executive
  132. Storage of virtually unlimited capacity that holds information for long periods
    Long-term memory
  133. Long-term memory of specific experiences or events, linked to a time and place
    Episodic memory
  134. Intentional and conscious memory, generally of facts, names, and events
    Explicit memory
  135. Unconscious recall, generally habits and skills; sometimes called procedural memory
    Implicit memory
  136. Long-term memory of motor skills, habits, and ways of doing things, which can be recalled without conscioud awareness; sometimes called implicit memory
    Procedural memory
  137. Types of memory recall
    Recognition and Recall
  138. The ability to identify something encountered before
    Picking out a missing mitten
    Multiple choice
  139. Reproduce information from memory
    -describing the missing mitten
  140. 3 types of childhood memories
    • Generic
    • Episodic
    • Autobiographical
  141. Produces 'scripts'- general outlines of repeated and familiar events
  142. Remembering a specific event at a specific time
  143. Memories that form a person's life history
    -Specific and long lasting
Card Set
HDA terms