bio ch. 5

  1. active transport
    uses energy to go from low to high concentration of ion
  2. in cystic fibrosis the cells of the respirtory system...
    have a bad Cl- active transporter gene
  3. exocytosis
    pushes things out of the cell
  4. endocytosis
    brings things inside the cell
  5. receptor mediated endocytosis
    things come in the cell because there is a receptor on the outside saying "over here"
  6. phagocytosis
    cell eating
  7. pinocytosis
    cell drinking
  8. cellular respiration
    cells making energy from food
  9. energy
    capacity to do work
  10. potential energy
    energy that isn't being used. example: car @ top of hill
  11. kinetic energy
    energy that is being actively used. example: car going up hill
  12. chemical energy
    energy that is stored in chemical reactions; potential energy; atp
  13. first law of thermodynamics
    energy can neither be created nor destroyed, but it can change its form
  14. 2nd law of thermodynamics
    when energy is converted from one form to another, the amount of useful energy decreases
  15. entropy
    randomness and disorder that increases from 2nd law
  16. exergonic
    extra energy is given off when the bonds forms
  17. endergonic
    it takes extra energy to form a bond
  18. metabolism
    sum of all chemical reactions
  19. catabolism
    breaks large molecules into small. example: NaCl--- Na + Cl-
  20. anabolism
    small molecules built up to large. example: Na + Cl- = NaCl
  21. enzymes
    proteins that speed up chemical reactions by lowering the activation energy; catalysts; very specific; very efficient
  22. energy of activation
    energy needed to make a reaction go
  23. substrate
    molecule to be changed; key
  24. active site
    part of the enzyme that binds to the substrate; lock
  25. many diseases/disorders are caused by..
    missing a particular enzyme
  26. changing the temperature, ph or salt concentraion will...
    change the enzyme's activity
  27. coenzyme
    small organic molecule that is required for some enzymes to work
  28. cofactor
    small, inorgainc molecule that is required for some enzymes to work; iron, zinc, magnesium, calcium
  29. competitive inhibition
    something else competes for the active site; sulfa drugs
  30. sulfa drugs keepĀ 
    PABA from being converted to folic acid
  31. irreversible inhibition
    changes structure of enzyme so it doesn't work any more. example: mercury
  32. enzyme names end in
    ase; penicillinase, lactase, nuclease, lipase
Card Set
bio ch. 5