What are the three physical properties of sugar?
example of high hygroscopicity?
- ...Ability to attract and hold water
- ...bread= high hygroscopicity because it can hold onto water.
the amount of sugar that will go into solution
Look at the table over sweetness and review:
which six are in the sugars category?
- invert sugar
which three are in the sugar alcohol category?
which eight are in the alternative sweetener category?
- Tagatose (naturlose)
- aspartame (equal)
- acesulfame-k (sunette)
- saccharin (sweet n low)
- sucralose (splenda)
- what does it depend on?
-benefits and problems?
- Ability to attract and hold water (will be diff levels for diff mono and di s)
- ... dependent on temperature
- ... benefits- maintain freshness(baked products)
- ... problems- texture in high humidity (absorbing too much moisture)
-what affects this?
- The amount of sugar that will go into solution
- - the higher the temp of water the more able to dissolve sugar which means a high solubility
- - the type of sugar and temperature of water or solvent will affect soulubility
list the sugars from most soluble to least soluble:
- fructose (most soluble)+ sweetest (ex: softer candies)
- lactose (least soluble)+least sweet (gritty ice cream)
What are two chemical reactions?
What does acid and enzyme hydrolysis do?
Formation of invert sugar
meaning of hydrolysis?
to break down ...
what is invert sugar?
glucose + fuctose in equimolar amounts
how to create invert sugar?
- 1. water + sugar
- 2. Acid
- 3. Presence of water
Inversion is what :
and what is needed?
- Forming invert sugar.
- needed is:
- acidic medium
- presence of water
What sugar readily goes through hydrolysis?
- cleved without sucrase enzyme by the acid... and also can be by the enzyme sucrase...
- then will get two monosaccarides glucose and fructose
What are the two types of candies?
- CRYSTALLINE CANDY
- AMORPHOUS (NONCRYSTALLINE) CANDY
Define crystalline candy
- -Candies formed from sugar solutions yielding many fine, small crystals
Describe optimal appearance of crystalline candy
- Hold the desired shape and appear smooth, not lumpy
- should be opaque with no areas of off color
Describe texture of crystalline candy
it should have very small crystals and therefore feel smooth on the tongue
Describe the tenderness of crystalline candy
- should be firm enough to hold its shape
- buttt should be extremely easy to cut, bite, and chew
- if it is tough or does not dissolve readily in the mouth, the sugar crystals are too big
describe the mouthfeel of crystalline candy
It should feel smooth
Describe the flavor of crystalline candy
- Mild sweet and well-blended flavor
- accented by any added flavors like chocolate
Define amorphous (noncrystalline) candy
- - Candies formed from sugar solutions that did not crystallize
- peanut brittle
Describe the optimal appearance of amorphous candy
- hard candies should be hard not sticky and clear, not cloudy
- other candies (like peanut brittle, toffee, caramels, marshmallows, etc.) should be opaque with no areas of off-color.
- should hold its shape upon cooling and after cutting
Describe the texture of amorphous candy
- hard candies should be very hard and brittle
- other candies should be smooth with no crystals or apparent graininess
Describe the tenderness of amorphous candy
- hard candies should be difficult to cut or bite, but dissolve in the mouth
- soft candies like caramels should be soft yet quite chewy
Describe the mouthfeel of amorphous candy
It should feel smooth with no lumps or crystals
describe the flavor of amorphous candy
It should be mild, sweet and well blended with added ingredients often predominant
What is the importance of temperature in candy preparation?
- It is crucial-- it influences crystallization at all stages of heating and cooling
- determines texture/firmness of candy
- the temperature of a syrup solution reflects its concentration (so reaching a particular candy's final temp is crucial
- example: 112 C contains 80% sugar and at 148 C can get 95% sugar
Details on final candy temperatures of crystalline candy versus noncrystalline candy:
- Crystalline candy has a lower temp goal therefore the % sugar in the solution is lower.
- non crystalline candy has a higher temp goal therefor the % sugar in the solution is higher.
- (toffee is the hardest and most supersaturated solution + highest % of sugar)
What are interfering agents ?
-What type of candies are the used in?
- A substance added to the sugar syrup to prevent/delay the formation of large crystal, resulting in a candy with a waxy, chewy texture.
- to control when we want the crystals to form
- impt for both crystalline and amorphous (diff amounts added)
What are some examples of interfering agents?
- ----Create monosaccharides
- corn syrup (mostly glucose, some fructose)
- Cream of tartar (acid hydrolysis of sucrose into glucose and fructose) because easy to use
- -----acid is most common because causes inversion and reduces crystallization
- -----fat (butter, cream)
- fudge(milk fat, chocolate fat)
- fondant (water and sugar-leads to hydrolysis... the sucrose is hydrolized then becomes an iterfering agent because interfering agents are monosaccarides)
4 steps in crystalline candy preparation
- 1. Heat-dissolve sugar (boiling pt increases)
- 2. Add interfering agent (promotes smoother texture)
- 3. cool to make supersaturated solution (be very careful with dust or agitation)
- 4. stir to create nuclei (seeding)
CRYSTALLINE CANDY PREP
What can initiate crystal formation?
What should be avoided when heating the solution to its final temperature?
- -----Stirring or agitaion
- syrup slashing onto the sides of the pan can also prematurely seed a solution and initiate crystal formation
- ------ avoid vigorous boiling or stirring
what does to seed mean?
To create nuclei or starting points from which additional crystals can form
Smoother candies result if sugar crystals are kept small or large ?
How can smaller sugar crystals be achieved?
... again a greater number of starting points results in what size crystals?
- Starting with more seed crystals rather than less
- so that there are more sites for the remaining sugar to crystallize on.
- greater number of starting points =smaller crystals
The crystalline candy structure is dependent on what?
The smooth cremy texture of (ex fondant, fudge, and divinity) depends on the FORMATION OF NUMEROUS, SMALL SUGAR CRYSTALS.
Numerous small crystals can be acheived by :
- Preventing early seeding
- stirring immediately once supersaturation is reached and continue stirring
AMORPHOUS CANDY PREP
what is the goal in preparing noncrystalline candies?
to ensure that sugar does not crystallize
What are two major methods that are used to inhibit crystallization?
- Create very concentrated sugar solutions
- add large amounts of interfering agents (high viscosity and interfering agents prevent crystallization.)
Examples of some noncrystalline candies?
- Hard and brittle candy
- aerated candies
which type of candies keep indefinitely if properly wrapped?
- those lowest in water content
- examples are hard candies and brittle
what does ripening mean?
growth of sugar crystals
true or false:
storage requirements are the same with all candies
- storage requirements vary depending on the candy
What happens to candies like fudge and fondant if left in an airtight container?
They get softer and smoother in texture because the have a higher moisture content
What ingredients are subject to rancidity?
- Ingredients OTHER THAN sugar such as:
- milk products
What can delay degradation?
but that tip can lead to ...?
- Refrigeration or freezing
- but can lead to lactose crystals (if too much lactose) and water crystals
CRYSTALLINE vs. AMORPHOUS CANDY SUMMARY
which has more interfering agents?
- Amorphous has more
- (crystalline = less)
Which has a lower final temperature?
- Crystalline has lower final temp.
- (amorphous = higher final temp.)
Which has a lower sugar concentration?
- Crystalline has lower sugar concentration
- (amorphous = higher)
true or false:
crystals form in amorphous candy
- no crystals form in amorphous candy
- (small crystals form in crystalline)
Examples of Crystalline candy:
Examples of Amorphous candy?