Lecture 1- MINERALS

  1. Definition of a mineral
    • Naturally occuring,
    • Homogeneous solid
    • definite but generally not fixed chemical comp.
    • ordered atomic arrangement
  2. Is glass a crystal? why/ why not? what arethey considered?
    • No.
    • Lack long range atomic order
    • amorphous
  3. Define biominerals

    give 2 examples
    Minerals that constitue an integral part of biological structures and processes.

    • Calcite (CaCo3) -shells of marine invertebrates, limestone
    • Apatite (Ca5(PO4)3(OH,CL,F) - teeth and bone H=5
  4. Define geomicrobiology

    example of a mineral produced through this process?
    The interaction of microbes and geological processes

    pyrite FeS2- Produced by action of sulfate producing bacteria (shale and coal beds)
  5. Define CRYSTAL
    - pice of a mineral bounded, at least in part by regular crystal faces produced as the crystal grew.

    example Quartz in granite vs Quartz CRYSTALS
  6. Chemical composition layers
    Minerals get more complex from core to crust

    Image Upload 1
  7. Define Lithosphere
    Define Asthenosphere
    Lithosphere: brittle outermost layer (averge thickness ~ 100km) consiting of crust (oceanic and continntal) and uppermost mantle

    Asthenosphere: Ductile later (from ~100km depth to perhaps as deep as 700m) within the mantle that deforms plastically
  8. Era's of earths mineral evolution
    • - Era of planetary accretion
    • 250 minerals
    • -Era of Crust and Mantle
    • 1500 minerals
    • -Era of bio-mediated minerology
    • 4500 minerals
Card Set
Lecture 1- MINERALS
Lecture 1- MINERALS