What is the result of the Tn 1546 mediated vancomycin resistance pathway?
VanX breaks down D-Ala-D-Ala to D-Ala
VanH turns pyruvate into D-Lac
VanA adds D-Lac to D-Ala
End result is D-Ala-D-Lac instead of D-Ala-D-Ala
What causes generalized transduction with regard to viruses?
Packing error packs first infected cells DNA into virus instead of virus DNA in a lytic life cycle bacteria
What causes specialized transduction?
Excision errors from a lysogenic life cycle bacteria
What is a defective prophage?
A phage that can no longer form infective phage particles although parts are retained due to useful trait
Which element from Acinetobacter baumannii encodes 45 antimicrobial resistance genes and 2 gene capture integrins?
What element from Staph aureus converts antibiotic susceptible S. aureus in MRSA?
Fosfomycin inhibits one of the enzymes that converts UDP-NAG to UDP-NAM. Assuming that all UDP-NAM is unavailable, what steps in peptidoglycan synthesis would then be prevented?
– A. Polymerization of stem peptides
– B. Loading of bactoprenol phosphate carrier
– C. Transglycosylation reactions to assemble glycan strands
– D. Transpeptidation reactions to crosslink stem peptides
– E. All of the above
E. All of the above
A bacterium that is susceptible to infection with virulent (lytic) bacteriophage, and is devoid of transposons, plasmids, and prophage, might still be able to transfer antibiotic resistance genes to other bacteria by which mechanism:
A. Generalized transduction
A plasmid is:
C. An autonomous replicon
C. Can be defined as horizontal genetic transfer via uptake of naked DNA from the environment
Genetic variation in bacteria can be caused by all of the following EXCEPT: