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  1. cartilage general features
    avascular connective tissue comprising chondrocytes which maintain surrounding ecm of type II collagen (flexibility), glucosaminoglycans (compressibility) and hyaluronic acid (hydrophilic)
  2. hyaline cartilage
    found at articular surfaces of bone involved in synovial joints, and at growth plates (epiphyses) during endochondral ossification
  3. fibrocartilage
    cartilage tissue with fibrous collagen fibres, comprising round chondrocytes and flattened fibroblasts in an ecm e.g in cartilaginous joints and menisci
  4. elastic cartilage
    cartilage tissue with elastic fibres
  5. bone general cell and ecm
    • osteoblasts mature into osteocytes which secrete ecm, and osteoclasts (large multinucleate) from a different cell lineage digest ecm
    • ecm is type 1 collagen and GAG osteocalcin which binds calcium salts to matrix (rigidity, storage)
  6. compact bone
    • strong outer surface made of haversian systems with central canal surrounded by concentric lamellae with lacunae housing osteocytes connected by gap junctions canaliculi, volkmann's canals
    • osteoblasts move outward from central canal maturing into osteocytes while osteoclasts are only present in periosteum
  7. cancellous bone
    • matrix arranged in interconnected bars called trabeculae, surrounded by haematopoietic bone marrow
    • osteocytes found in lacunae within trabeculae, osteoblasts on surface and osteoclasts migrate in bone marrow
  8. dense fibrous connective tissue structures
    tendons and ligaments made of fibroblast-type cells tenocytes which secrete type 1 collagen rich ecm, attached to bone via fibrocartilage zone
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