Child presents with bowing of the tibia, flattened nose, and deafness. Tx of mother to avoid this?
- Congenital symphilis
- Tx: Pen G
Patients with septic athritis get recurrent infections with Neisseria due to?
- Antigenic and phase variation of the pili
- OMP I - structural, used in serotyping
- Opa proteins - antigenic variation, adherence
- IgA protease - colonization + cellular uptake
Medullary thyroid carcinoma
- Parafollicular cells of the thyroid - NC cells
- Calcitonin precipitates to form amyloid
- High fever for a long time
- Palpable cervical lymph nodes
- Desquamating rash on palms, soles and mouth
Can damage coronary vessels causing aneurysms
Reflex that disappears between 3-6 months
- Moro reflex: extension and abduction of arms followed by flexion and adduction
- Caused due to a startling event
Reflex that disappears in 1 month
Palmar grasp reflex: Infants hand closing over an object placed in their hand
Paget's disease - viral pathogenesis?
- Paramyxoviruses in the osteoclasts
- (RSV, measles)
Alcoholic presents with hemorrhages around hair follicles, echymoses. Vitamin deficient?
Microvilli - what proteins affected?
- Actin (microvilli are extensions of actin filaments)
- Myosin (binds to actin)
One hour after exercise - what increases?
- VEGF mRNA = growth of new blood vessels decreases diffusion distance between capillaries and muscles, and improves oxygen transport
- Decreases myoglobin O2 saturation and intracellular O2
Few days later: increases mitochondrial volume density
Body reaction to parasites
- Coats them with IgE molecules
- Triggers eosinophilic-mediated cytotoxicity
- Release of vasoactive and spasmotogenic peptides from mast cells and basophils
12 hours after exercise, mechanism working to produce glucose?
- Hepatic gluconeogenesis
- (first few hours = hepatic glycogenolysis)
- Clomipramine (TCA drug)
- Fluoxetine (SSRI)
Test to detect viral load in HIV
Test to detect pneumonia caused by AIDs
Test to measure progression of infection by HIV
- Direct fluorescent antibody test/Methamine silver stain (P. jiroveci)
- CD4 T cell count
Celecoxib over general NSAIDs
- Doesn't inhibit COX-1: less GI irritation and renal impairment
- Disadvantage: Sulfa allergy
Severe anemia can cause heart failure. Values in the blood?
- Hypoxia in the tissues
- Small arterioles and arteries dilate
- Heart continues to pump with a greater force to allow more blood and oxygen to go to the tissues
- Enveloped, DNA virus
- Causes molluscum contagiosum
- DNA-dependent RNA polymerase
- Replicates in the cytoplasm
Cryptococcus meningitis - test?
- Latex agglutination test to detect capsules shed in the CSF
- (India Ink is not specific)
Ashkenasi Jews associated with which diseases
- Tay Sachs
What stage of germ cell located near the basal lamina in the seminiferous tubule?
Spermatogonia (2N cells)
Baroreceptor reflex due to a decreased blood pressure
Increased SNS leading to increased NE release - increases a1 receptors = Gq receptors increases DAG and IP3
What allows emboli forming in the veins to bypass lungs and cause emboli in the arteries in the systemic circulation (e.g. brain)
- (PE will produce emboli in the lungs but will not be able to bypass to go to the systemic circulation)