The Motor Relearning Programme for Stroke - whose theory? what kind of theory?
Carr and Shephard
biomechanical and motor learning
The Motor Relearning Programme for Stroke - tell me about it
basic premise: pts must actively be involved in re-learinginmovements based on the biomechanical necessities of the tasks and on their refinement of motor output
basically: get pts motivated, have them learn basics, then get them to more complicated tasks and closer to motor norms
what is skill? - descriptive list generated in class
reproducable acquired (not innate) complex mvmnt, goal-directed, serves a function, measurable, energy efficient, has finesse
how does performance differ from learning?
performance = doing
learning = the journey, the process. It's measurable thru performance, it's contingent on motivation, it's dynamic (you may forget things), it may not always lead to optimal performance
Ann M. Gentile is known for what?
she made a taxonomy of tasks
she's into the behavioral model for skill acquisition
Gentile's 2 types of goal-directed activity
investigatory: ex - I was hungry so I went to the fridge to look for food
adaptive: ex - swaying on the subway to stay upright
3 levels on which Gentile (or the behavioural model? I'm not sure) analyzes tasks
movement, simple def
"means by which action is realized"
plan or approach used to achieve a goal
form of mvmnt, detailed squence of components (muscle activity, joint angle change, etc)
in Gentile's taxonomy of task the tasks can be classified by __ and __. And then these are broken up further, how?
Environment and Function of the activity
Env: regulatory conditions (stationary or body and/or object in motion) and intertrial variability (low/high)
Function: body orientation (stability or transport) and w/wo manipulation
In Gentile's taxonomy, stationary + no intertrial variability =
In Gentile's taxonomy, stationary + intertrial variability =
In Gentile's taxonomy, in motion + no intertrial variability =
In Gentile's taxonomy, in motion + intertrial variability =
what to do in the cognitive stage of learning
focus on goals and general features of task
get baseic framework for completing task
do trial and error - lets you group info into categories
eval spatial and temporal (speed) features
formulate a basic motor plan by simplifying the task, decreasing the degrees of freedom
learn to appreciate subtle preparatory postural adjustments
what's happening in the associative stage for a closed task?
you're concentrating on regulatory features
you're practicing --> decreased variablility in performance so it becomes hopefully controlled or automatic
what's happening in the associative stage for an open task?
it's an ever-changing env, so performance is dependant on env.
what happens in automatic or control stage of learning
pt learns to adapt over a greater range of contexts
pt has highly developed scanning and preparatory system, and now can adapt more easily
pt is thinking forward at this point, thinking of what will happen next in the task
summary of skill acquisition - learner goes from __ to __
explicit learning (learning to do a task and interact w env - most improvement happens in this stage)--> implicit learning (adjusting movement in advance by gradually learning the most efficient way to execute task - slow process)
things to think about in env when learning a task
start w minimal distractions
gradually add them to increase info-processing abilities of pt, and to better mimic real world envs
comes from outside the performer or is verbalized by the performer
guides the pt's selective attention
must be stage specific
must attend to important spatial and temporal regulatory features
comes from withing the performerbased on sensory receptors (joints, ears, eyes...)
may be distorted in pt w CP, stroke, sensory loss
aka knowledge of results -- about the mvmnt outcome, did pt accomplish the goal?
PT can guide this if it's not obvious to pt
feedback about the movement
aka knowledge of performancethis is about the movement pattern produced, not the goal attainment - ex. focus on control of the many degrees of freedom
3 types fo practice
blocked: has limited variablility in env conditions. better w initial learning, esp w whole body tasks
random: may be better for the skilled learner or during initial learning of simple manipulative tasks
mental: thinking it thru or watching someone do it