CSET English Subtest 3

  1. Literary Techniques
    An identifiable writing rule of thumb, convention, or structure used in literature and storytelling.

    • Figures of speech
    • Allegory
    • Rhetorical Devices
    • Plot devices
  2. Plot Devices
    An object or character in a story whose purpose is to advance the plot of the story or to overcome a difficulty in the plot.

    • Examples:
    • Deus ex Machina: originates in the Greek tragedy, an ending where an improbable events brings the story to a conclusion

    Deathtrap: overly complicated killing of a character used solely to provide a means of escape

    Unreliable Narrator
  3. Rhetorical Devices
    Techniques used in persuasion

    Examples: assertion (statement of belief), claim (what the author is trying to prove), credibility, data, diction, ethical appeal (persuasion by presenting the writer as a competent, sincere, and fair person), evidence, factual evidence, fallacy (error in reasoning), generalization, etc.
  4. Persuasive Essays: Types of Appeal
    • * Appeal to Reason
    • * Appeal to Emotion
    • * Appeal to Morality
  5. Persuasive Essays: Types of Persuasive Speech
    • * Propositions of Fact
    • * Propositions of Value
    • * Propositions of Problem
    • * Propositions of Policy
  6. Persuasive Essays: Logical Fallacies
    • * Bandwagon
    • * Red Herring
    • * Glittering Generalities
    • * Ad Hominem
  7. Persuasive Essays: Advertising Techniques
    * Maslow's hierarchy of needs
  8. Persuasive Essays: Logical Argument
    • * inductive reasoning
    • * deductive reasoning
    • * syllogisms
    • * analogies
  9. Persuasive Essays: Classical Argument
    • * claim
    • * qualifiers
    • * rules of evidence
    • * warrant
  10. Appeal to Ethics
    Used most often in political advertisements.

    Appeal to a person's or thing's image

    • Can be used in a letter of compaint as an effective argument:
    • "I've always thought of your company as ______, but..."
  11. Appeal to Emotions
    An appeal made to emotions

    Used often in advertising

    Example: advertising company makes you fear what would happen if ____
  12. Appeal to logic
    An appeal made to one's ability to reason

    "If this is so, then you can conclude this."
  13. Supporting claims with reason (logos)
    • * Use concrete, specific data and evidence
    • * Types of evidence: facts, expert opinions or quotes, definitions, statistics, examples, loaded words used in emotional appeals, present and argue against opposition
    • * Ends with a call to action
  14. Supporting claims with ethics (ethos)
    • * Convince readers that you are fair, honest, and well informed to earn their trust
    • * Avoid use of negatively-charged loaded words
  15. Supporting claims with emotion (pathos)
    • * Description or narration of an example from experience
    • * Demonstrate your point of view so that the reader values it
    • * Choose words carefully
  16. Inductive Reasoning
    Reasoning that begins with specifics and moves toward a generalization

    Example: Several clubs have reported difficulty completing their business during lunch period. This proves that lunch periods should be longer.
  17. Deductive Reasoning
    Reasoning that starts with a general observation then moves to specifics

    Example: When people hurry, inefficiency and poor communication are the results. Under current conditions clubs must hurry at lunch time meetings. Therefore, lunch period should be lengthened to allow for better club meetings.
  18. Logical Fallacy: Ad Hominem
    "against the man" A claim or argument is rejected because of some irrelevant fact about the person presenting the claim

    • Person A makes claim X
    • Person B makes and attack on person A
    • Therefore Person A's claim is false
  19. Logical Fallacy: Bandwagon
    The threat of rejection by one's peers is substituted for evidence in an argument.

    • Joe: "Bill, I know you think that 1+1=2. But we don't accept that sort of thing in our group. "
    • Bill: "I was just joking. Of course I don't believe that."
  20. Logical Fallacy: Red Herring
    An irrelevant topic is brought up to divert attention from the original issue

    • Topic A is under discussion
    • Topic B is brought up but turns out to be completely irrelevant
    • Topic A is abandoned
Card Set
CSET English Subtest 3
Terms found in the test guide for CSET English Subtest 3