discussion questions for psych test 2

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  1. list Erikson's 8 stages of dvelopment
    • 1. infancy: trust vs mistrust developing general trust & security in others
    • 2. toddlerhood: autonomy vs shame & doubt developing a sense of indepedence & self-reliance
    • 3. early childhood: initiative vs guilt developing initiative in exploring and manipulating the environment
    • 4. middle childhood: industry vs inferiority enjoyment & mastery of the developmental tasks of childhood, in & out of school
    • 5. adolescence: identity vs identity confusion achievement of stable & satisfying sense of identity
    • 6. young adulthood: intimacy vs isolation development of ability to maintian intimate relationships
    • 7. adulthood: generativity vs stagnation satisfaction of personal and familial needs supplemented by development of interest in the welfare of others
    • 8. aging: ego integrity vs despair recognizing & adjusting to againg and the prospect of death with a sense of satisfaction about the future
  2. what is moral development? who is the founder? what are the 3 levels of moral reasoning?
    • moral development: the process of decision making about right or wrong
    • Kohlberg
    • Preconventional morality: showing morality to avoid punishment or gain reward (before age 9)
    • conventional morality: social rules and laws are upheld for their own sake (like speed limit. early adolescence)
    • Postconventional morality: based on fundamental human rights & values, follows internal ethical principles that transcend society
  3. what are the 3 main issues in human development?
    • Nature/Nurture: how do genetic inheritance (nature) and experience (nurture) influence our behavior
    • continuity stages: is development a gradual, continuous process or a sequence of separate stages
    • stability/change: do our early personality traits persist through life, or do we become different persons as we age
    • it's not either nature or nurture, it's always going to be both
  4. Piaget's 4 stages in cognitive development
    • 1. Sensorimotor
    • 2. preoperational
    • 3. concrete operations
    • 4. formal operations
  5. (piaget's 4 stages)
    sensorimotor stage
    • birth to 2 years
    • experiencing the world through senses and actions like looking, hearing, touching, grasping, mouthing
    • object permanence: learning that just because you can't see something doesn't mean its not there
    • stranger anxiety
  6. (piaget's 4 stages)
    • Preoperational stage
    • about 2 to 6 or 7 yrs old
    • representing things with words and images, using intuitive rather than logical reasoning
    • Pretend play
    • Egocentrism: not being able to see other's point of view (kid buys his mom a matchbox car for her birthay cuz in his eyes that's the most awesome present ever)
  7. (piaget's 4 stages)
    • Concrete operational
    • ages 7 to 11
    • thinking logically about concrete events; grasping concrete analogies and performing arithmetical operations
    • conservation: realizing that even if the physical presentation of something changes, the amount remains the same
  8. (piaget's 4 stages)
    • formal operational
    • ages 12 through adulthood
    • abstract reasoning: the ability to think logically about abstract principles and hypothetical situtations
  9. 4 types of Gestalt Perceptual organization
    • perceptual organization: after distinguishing the figure from the ground, our perception needs to organize the figure into a meaningful form using grouping rules
    • Gestalt principles: the perception of objects as wholes within a context, not isolated lines and curves
    • 1. Proximity: are close together
    • 2. similarity: are similar
    • 3. closure: have missing contours
    • 4. figure-ground: a central figure
  10. 4 child-rearing processes
    • 1. Permissive: lenient, affectionate, very little punishment
    • 2. Authoritarian: strict, show litte affection, strong discipline
    • 3. Authoritative: support children, but set firm limits (works best)
    • 4. Uninvolved: neglectful, ignore children (worst)
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discussion questions for psych test 2
discussion questions for psych test 2
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