Davies- Evaluation for Pericarditis

  1. With M-mode, constrictive pericarditis is best identified by a

    rapid early mitral E-F slope
    reduced LVPW amplitude
    flattening of mid to late LVPW motion
    reduced IVS amplitude
    flattening of mid to late LVPW motion

    constrictive pericarditis does not allow for flexible expansion of the LV
  2. T/F:  Echo free space noted anteriorly but not posteriorly should alwasy be considered pericardial effusions?

    Although pericardial effusion can occur without posterior effusions, a good rule of thumb is to suspect pericardial effusion only when posterior effusions are noted
  3. T/F:  Of the following, which is/are echo criteria of cardiac tamponade?

    increase in RV size with inspiration
    posterior motion of the anterior RV wall in diastole
    early diastolic indention of the RV
    flattening of the mitral E-F slope
    All True
  4. The differentiation between pleural effusion and pericardial effusion cannot be assisted by:

    double echo-free space posterior to the LV
    anterior echo-free space
    paradoxical septal motion
    scan from apex to base
    anterior echo-free space

    anterior echo-free space by itself does not identify pericardial effusion
  5. T/F:  Pitfalls to be avoided when looking for pericardial effusions with M-mode include:

    setting gain too high
    mistaking the descending aorta
    directing the beam too lateral and picking up reverberations
    noting anterior echo-free space only
    All True
  6. T/F:  The characteristics used to distinguish between pericardial fat and pericardial effusion are

    density of echo
    consistent distance between the pericardium and epicardium throughtout the cardiac cycle
    distance greater than 2mm between the pericardium and the epicardium
    anterior motion of the LV pulmonary wedge pericardium during systole

    density of echoes is too varied for either pericardial fat or an effusion. Also, the distance is not indicative of either entity. However, with an effusion the pericardium shows a flat pattern and does not remain a constant distance from the epicardium
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Davies- Evaluation for Pericarditis