What is the most typical lesion seen in canine dermatophytosis?
Localized area of broken hairs leading to alopecia
How should M. canis be treated in otherwise healthy dogs and cats?
None, spontaneous cure in 60-90 days
What is the most typical lesion of feline dermatophytosis?
areas of broken hairs leading to focal alopecia with slight erythema
What areas of the body is dermatophytosis common in the guinea pig?
Nose, forehead and ears
What is a lipid loving yeast that is a normal inhabitant of both canine and feline skin and is associated with other skin diseases?
How can you assess the numbers of Malassezia on an animal?
tape strip preparation and staining with DifQuik stain
What subcutaneous mycoses is found in tropical/subtropical climate, enters via puncture wound, and is a significant zoonotic risk?
What subcutaneous mycoses is found in tropicl/subtropical climate, is aquatic (not true fungi) and usually starts on the limbs?
Pythiosis (diagnosis confirmed by biopsy)
What type of disease is demodecosis?
What are the two theories for the development of demodecosis?
- Immunological theory (impaired Tcell or chronic corticosteroid treatment)
- Local environment theory (skin fx impaired)
Where are sites for predilection of localized demodecosis?
How is a definitive diagnosis of demodecosis obtained?
Demonstration of mites (Examine exudate, pluck hair, skin scraping and biopsy)
What are some treatments used for generalized demodecosis? 5
- Promeris Duo
What type of treatment is strictly contraindicated in demodecosis?
What is the most pruritic disease encountered in small animal dermatology?
Scabies (Sarcoptes scabei)
What is the primary eruption in scabies? Where is it usually seen?
Papules seen on ear margins, elbows and ventral chest
How do you confirm the diagnosis of scabies? 3
- broad superficial skin scraping
- Serological test for antigen specific IgG
- If in doubt treat with Scabecide
What is an effective treatment for scabies? 4
- Lime sulphur
Can a cheyletiella infestation infect humans?
What are clinical signs of a cheyletiella infestation in dogs?
excessive dandruff on trunk
How is a diagnosis of cheyletiella infestation confirmed?
Very superficial skin scrapings or scotch tape preparations
What demodex species lives in the stratum corneum of cats and is a contagious disease?
Other than dogs and cats, what other animal commonly is infected with demodecosis?
What disease is caused by notoedres cati, is found in the southwest US and Italy, is usually localized to the head and neck or cats and can also affect man?
What type of lesion is associated with psorptic mange (psoroptes cuniculi)?
Crusty exudate forms within the ears
What burrowing mite is a major cause of pruritus in guinea pigs?
Trixacarus caviae (can temporarily infect humans)
What is the most common skin disease affecting dogs and cats world-wide?
Flea allergy dermatitis
What subspecies of flea is found most commonly on dogs and cats?
Ct. felis felis
What is the preferred site for flea infestation in dogs?
Stomach and hindquarters
What are some non-allergic effects of fleas on the host? 6
- Dipylidium caninum
- Yersinia pestis
- Dipetolonema reconditum
- Bartonella henselae
What is the major allergen recognized by >90% of animals with FAD?
How can you lessen the chance of your animal developing flea allergy later in life?
Exposure to bites early in life
What is the immunopathogenesis of flea allergy? 3
- Immediate hypersensitivity (IgE)
- Delayed, cell-mediated hypersensitivity
- Cutaneous basophil hypersensitivity
What criteria must be filled for a definitive diagnosis of FAD? 5
- Presence of flea and/or flea dirt
- Compatible clinical signs
- Demonstration of hypersensitivity
- Response to appropriate parasiticidal therapy
- Rule out concomitant disease
What anti-allergic therapy is not generally affective in FAD? 2
- Essential fatty acids
What is the best treatment of the environment for fleas?
What are the predilection sites for pediculosis (louse infestation)? 2
- Areas with thick covering of hair
What are some factors affecting keratinization? 5
- Vitamin A
What is the key role of the epidermal layer? 2
- Correct formation of cell envelope
- Correct formation of the epidermal lipid layer