member of church at jerusalem; served as secretary for Paul and Peter (he wrote what they said in 1 Peter and 1-2 Thessalonians
Paul was a mentor to him; "Paul's son"
pronoun change in Acts; show how the author Luke writes in 1st person meanin he was there for the activity; changed in Troas
"Macadonian town"; hometown of Luke and location of medical center; conversion of Lydia comes here (1st European to ever be saved); exorcism of a slave girl; Paul and Silas go to jail and sing hymns, jailer is saved and they are released
3 sabbaths occur; Pauls own people eventuall reject him and he began to focus on the Gentiles of the town; "free city"; capital of Macedonia; port city, main road;
birthplace for democracy; location of the worlds greatest university; Paul the only one here; Paul addresses the philosophers in the marketplace on Mars Hill here...
Capital of Acaah, mostly slaves; porty city, slave trade center, slums, poverty, immortality; worship the patron goddess Aphrodite "sex, love"; ppl had sex to worship
greek for "appearance, coming, arrival"; when ppl thought of Jesus coming they thought he was going to be in the form of king, dignitary, military hero
like 1st coming when Jesus will once again set a foot on Earth
Jesus is in air and people rise to meet him there; latin for "raptus" which means snatching away; olivet discourse
Is Rapture the 2nd coming?
What proceeds the coming? Paul says this must occur first
Spiritual: Falling away
after Apostasy, this occurs; "son of destruction"
idiom=some one destined for destruction
this person will think he is god, but he is actually going to be powered by satan
"man of lawlessness"
birthplace: alexandria, egypt; jewish and christian, pastor at corinth; maybe helped with hebrews
a port city on the agean sea; paul mentions the Jerusalem Collection or offering here; paul spends 3 years; is on the western edge of asia minor/turkey; placed where east meets west; home of John; accessible by land and by sea; home of the goddess Artemis (Dianna) held one of the 7 wonders of the world; Paul spent his longest ministry here; Paul performs miracles, exorcises demon possesed, revives sorcerors to quit sorcery ways and commit to Jesus
famine, proves Gentile Christians are good ( they offer money )
Jerusalem Offering or Council
1st letter is considered to be before 1 corinthians;
THEME: do not associate with immoral ppl
some thought to be in 2 corinthians
-Paul refers to how he wrote YOU
Paul's 2nd visit to Corinth
Paul tells the people of Corinth he is coming back for his 3rd visit; this is his 3rd letter
"I'm coming again"
Paul's 3rd visit to Corinth
winter of contentment
(singular) explains that you and i are a body part. Christ is the head.
body of christ
spiritual gift that is common
earthly languages, heavenly (prayer) language; is a proof of salvation
greek 'skolos'=stake (Physical illness)
thorn in the flesh
known as the magna carta of christian freedom and liberty
THEME: freedom from legalism
jewish false teachers who taught circumcision and law as necessary for salvation; in galatians
date and audience of galatians
early date: south galatians (book of act)
late date: north galatians (early church tradition, rep of being fickle, spoke celtic)
9 of them; is singular (all or nothing); the Spirit produces the fruit in you; not self effort
fruit of the spirit
our choice, response; begins our relationship to God
Gods confirmation of that choice; entitles us to every benefit of that relationship
OCCASION: Paul answers 2 questions 1. what is the role of the ot law? 2. what is the role of israel?
THEME: faith in christ, the only groud for mankind's acceptance by God
REVELATION: Paul reveals Revelation in Romans (God reveals)
General rev- creation, conscience Special rev-scripture
prison letters that Paul wrote while he was in prison at these 3 locations
ephesus, caeserea, and rome
ephesians, philemon, colossians, philippians
prison epistles/ prison letters
the letters of the NT are _____ (results from and responses to a specific occasion)
did not teach doctrine as their primary purpose, used specific theology to meet the unique needs of their readers
the oldest NT books
how to interpret
history and literature
Audience of 1-2 Thessalonians
1. Morally weak-gentile converts, godfearers tempted by their past lives
3. Faint hearted
Purpose of 1-2 Thessalonians
1 Thess- encourage new christians facing persecution to persever in their faith
2 thess- counteract the influence of false teachers (doctrine-eschatology)
Characteristics of Apocalyptic
-Exclusively predictive or futuristic
-Veiled/symbolic-->highly imaginative language, use of numbers
-Eschatological dualism-->2 aeons 1. present 2. age to come (future)
eschatological events were an in-breaking of God into history and an end of history
-Secrets revealed long ago to certain chosen men
-Heavens and earth destroyed and replaced
-Elect would reign in the new age
-Teachings were in the form of visions
-Pessimistic view of the present
***apocalyptic derived from prophecy...its message is a re-adaptation of the old prophetic message within a new situation***
!. IDEALISM-continuous struggle between good and evil Christianity eventually triumps
2. PRETERISM-persecution of Christianity by Rome; Rome fell, but Christianity prevailed
3. HISTORICISM-symbolic presentation of Church History, from the Apostolic Age to the Last Judgment
4. FUTURISM-description of a coming painful and chaotic time, from the Tribulation to the Eternal State
jesus returns before a literal 1000 year reign
jesus presently rules at God's right hand
jesus will return after the whole world has converted to christianity
rapture: tribulation 3 1/2 years, great tribulations 3 1/2 years
tribulation 3 1/2 years-rapture-great tribulation 3 1/2 years
COMMENDATION AND REBUKE: ephesus, pergamum, and thyatira
son of Philip. Taught by Aristotle.
-334 BC when began conquest of world
-By 332 had already conquered Syria, Palestine, and Egypt
-331 captured Persia. (Greek domination began after defeat of Persia)
-He also conquered Armenia, Mesopotamia, and India
-On june 13 he died unexpectedly of malaria (in Babylon).
-He had not planned a succession before he died so his generals split up and stabilized the empire. Each general ruled a sector of the empire(they became known as diadochi) corruption among them eventually occurred.
alexander the great
spread of Greek culture. (which was achieved during the reign of Alexander the great)
son of Antiochus III
-claimed to be God in the flesh. (DEUS – “epiphanes” meaning greek for manifested or revealed one)
-Jews did not believe in Antiochus 4 b/c the y are monotheistic. They mocked him and called him “Epihpames” instead which means “mad man”
- Antiochus was angered by this and harassed the Jews and meddled with their Temples. (Desecreted the Jews Holy place)
Word got to Egypt that Antiochus 4 had died (when in reality he was still alove). While the Jews were celebrating his death, Antiochus 4 came upon them and became a very very angry little man. In December 167 Antiochus 4 tore down the Temple of God and began his torturing methods upon them. This time became known as the
abomination of desolution
(8 day celebration): Feast of Dedication: Festival of Lights
-Judas and group of Jews captured the Holy City of Jerusalem and the Temple. They did not overtake the ACRA but the reclaim the templ on Dec. 25 164 BC.
the original language of the New Testament
Responsible for the The Chapter Divisions in the Old and New Testaments.
Stephen Langton (archbishop)
“Robert Estienne” responsible for verse divisions in the New Testament.
collection of sacred writings “list, standard, measure”
-a list of authoritative books NOT a authoritative list of books.
the art and science of interpretation. (facts are facts fut interpretation of the facts differ)
son of Antipater
-initially made tetrarch of Galilee by Mark Antony
-when Mark Antony and Octavius begin to fight he does not take sides because he friends with both of them.
-Flees to rome when parthians set out to kill him
-at Rome he granted King of Palestine
-eventually defeats the Parthians and rules in Palestine
-People like him because he was loyal
-Known as a master builder. He is responsible for harbor Caesarea in Palestine
-Has 10 wives
herod the great
(4BC – 39 AD) son of Herod the great
-ruled lands of Galilee and Perca
-he was vain, arrogant and morally weak
-he married his brothers wife (Herodias)
-John the Baptist condemned his marriage to his sister-in-law and it angers him so he puts John the Baptist in jail. Herodias (the wife) orders John’s head on a platter.
-actually questions Jesus before he goes on trial. Jesus says nothing and Jesus is sent back to Pontius pilot
-is eventually banished to Spain (by the roman emperor Caligula) where he dies.
-considered ‘half Jews” because they married foreigners (which God told them not too)
-Jews normally did not talk to Samaritans.
Rome’s first emperor (Augustus Caesar)
-ends up fighting Mark Antony for the rule of Rome and wins.
-closed door to temple of god Janus (pax romana period)
-builds roman roads
-established postal service
-created civil services (police, garbage pick up, fireman)
means “Roman Peace”
-period between 27 BC and 180 AD
-Better Standard of living
-Rome only fought if chose too
English word comes from “dunamis” (dynamite/dynamic)
-not magical, requires faith, initiated by a word.
always appears with the word “wonder”
required no moral quality
-evoked amazement and astonishment (which wears off). Jesus is not impressed with wonder, he wants commintment.
(in all 4 gospels)
-not used in Old Testament and rarely appears after the gospels
-referred to as internal (inside people) and also referred to as “not of this world”
-The reign of God as “King” God’s active reign in the world
kingdom of God
Mark refers to Jesus as this using it as a umbrella term. [meaning it referred to Jesus as the person and his mission –(suffer and die)
son of man
attitudes you be. 8 happy statements. 8 characteristics of any person who is a member of the kingdom.
meaning “to see”
-gospels Matthew Mark and Luke all see together.
meaning doctrine of Christ
-who he is (person)
-what he did (works)
“in the flesh”
-what we celebrate at Christmas (jesus birth)
relative of Jesus
-transitional figure meaning books of Old Testament but her ushers on the coming of the Messiah. (the one)
-he is the final prophet
-refers to his baptisms as water baptisms representing “repentance.” He speaks of one who will come and baptize with spirit and fire (judgement)
john the baptist
has conversation with Jesus at night
-Member of Sanhedrin
-Jesus tells him that “he must be born again!” (is confused because he is thinking literally and not spiritually)
-Becomes a bold follower of Jesus
“good news” was not a literary term until Mark detailed the life and ministry if Jesus Christ
easy to remember saying that vividly captures a commonly held value of truth.
referred to as Little because the big one is in Revelations
-lengthy response from Jesus in the synoptics when disciples as about the end of the world.
-Jesus tells them there will be 3 signs of the end: (end of disciples lives), (end of temple and Jerusalem), and (Jesus will return)
(1st martyr) first to die for the Christian Faith. Stoned to death.
-missioned to Samaritan cities and Ethiopan enuch
capital of Syria
-where the 2nd church was at. The church was mission minded and funded all of Pauls missions.
-Here the term “Christian” was first referred to as followers of Jesus.
(grandson of Herod the Great)
-ruled over the territory of his uncles (Archaleaus, Antipas, and Philip)
-considered “King” (unlike uncles)
-was well liked by Jews because he persecuted Christians.
herod agrippa I
adopted by Roman emperor Claudius and his wife Agrippina.
-succeeds Claudius as emperor at age 13.
-First 5 years were good but the last 9 years of his reign were terrible. They were known as the “Reign of Terror”
-He was responsible for the death of his own mother Agrippina
-Had several wives. He just wanted to have a good time. (chariot races)
-He sets Rome on fire in 64 AD and blamed the fire on Christians.
-After he blames the Christians for the fire, he begins to persecute the Christians. (Paul was beheaded and Peter was crucified upside down because of him)
- He eventually commits suicide after his bodyguards turn against him.
went on first missionary journey with Paul and John Mark.
-nickname was “son of encouragement”
non Jewish people who decided to remain like they were because they didn’t want to be circumcised.
2 source theory
Matthew = Mark + Q
Luke = Mark + Q
4 source theory
Matthew = Mark + Q + M
Luke = Mark + Q + L
1.Maccion “the heretic”
a.lived in 2nd century AD
b.published lists of cannon of what should be read (Luke and Paul)
2.Rise of the Gnostic Writings
a.Gnosticism – not a religion but a cult. “distortion of Christianity”
b.Gnostics are dangerous because they talk about God and scripture but they are wrong (Divinci Code) 3. Persecution of Christians
a.Book be written by an apostle, someone who is associated with an apostle, or someone connected with Jesus.
a.A book that does not Contradict any other scripture.
3.Catholicity – (content)
a.A book that enjoyed widespread acceptance for a long period of time.
-monastic (secluded from corruption of society)
-pledged themselves to be celibate
-initiation of 2-3 years where they had to give up all wealth.
-Prayer baptism study and scripture were daily routine
-John the Baptist thought to have been one
-supported Herod family and Romans (Caesar)
-believed to submit to Rome=treason before God.
-Only allegiance = God
-Disciple Simon the Canaanite
-Sicarii – was the sup group within (assasins)
-high supreme court for Jews
principles of the gospel
1.to convert the reader
2.to edify – build, fortify, encourage (every community of faith)
3.to present the Christian significances of Jesus
composition of the gospels
why were the gospels written?
1. To hasten the spread of the gospel message faster than “door-to-door” by “word-of-mouth”
2. to preserve the first hand memories of Jesus before the apostles and other eyewitnesses died
3. to prepare for the future, however long
4. to counter the fraudulent, written accounts of Jesus’ life and ministry
5. to instruct new converts
why are there 4 gospels?
- Each gospel emerged from a specific setting
- Each gospel has a unique plan, purpose, and properties
- Each gospel is a “portrait,” presenting a distinctive view of Jesus
- One gospel would not have satisfied the diverse sprititual demands in each community of faith, Jewish Christian and Gentile Christian. No Gospel has more or less authority than another.
Date: 75-100 AD
Place: Antioch (Syria)
Audience: Jewish Christians
Date: 64 -70 AD (EARLIEST GOSPEL)
Place: most likely in Rome
Date: 70-90 AD
Place: most likely in Rome
Audience: wrote to Theophilus “God Lovers
Date: late 90’s AD (LATEST GOSPEL)
Audience: Jewish Christians
i am sayings
- “I AM” (no predicate) = claims to be God.
- “I AM” + (predicate)
Bread, door, good shepard, resurrection, life, vine,truth
Born of virgin mother who was either of young marriageable age of no sexual background
baptized by John the Baptist
tempted by satan 3 different times to come over to dark side
1.stones to bread
2.jumping off the templ
jesus's galilean ministry
- arrest of JTB
- call of the 12
- rejection on Sabbath at Synagogue in Nazareth
- Sermon on the Mount
- Calming of the Storm
- Gadarene Demoniac
- Rejection by Family
- Opposition by Religious Leaders
- Feeding of 5,000
- Walking on Water
- Feeding 4,000
- Caesarae-Philipi Confession
1. To glorify God the Father
2. To testify for God’s love for suffering humanity
3. To fulfill Old Testament Prophesies as he is the Messiah
4. To lead people to faith and power at work in Jesus.
sermon on the mount
1. To make the unfamiliar familiar
2. to call for a response
3. to seize the attention of the hearers
4. to sift out hardened hearts
Jesus asked questions about this place of worship
1.) Who do people say I am?
2.) Who do YOU say that I am?
peter replies to this question saying “you are the Christ, Son of the Living God”
Jesus replies and says, “ your right I am the Christ, I will become the suffering servant”
Peter then tries to hush Jesus for him saying that
- reveals Jesus’ divinity
- foreshadows what Jesus would look like on Easter Sunday (his resurrected body)
- tells how Jesus’ face shown like the sun and his clothes became white as light
- Transfiguration only is told about in the synoptics
- No launderer could have duplicated such a shade of white
- Jesus’ clothes flashed like lightning
- Moses and Elijah appear to talk to Jesus from could that appears
- they talk about how Jesus fulfills the law and prophecies
- the topic was passion week
- after God speaks there is no more cloud, Moses , or Elijah and Jesus looks like he did before
what did jesus' death accomplish?
1. Justification – legal term (not guilty)
2. Propitiation – means literally to appease someones wrath (God’s). satisfying his holiness and justice making forgiveness possible
3. Expiation – act of making amends, views sins as a failure to meet an obligation
4. Forgiveness – financial term to cancel a debt. “forgiveness is costly and always involves suffering”
5. Sacrifice – absolutely necessary in OT times. Sacrifice offered a protection in OT. Every time you would break the law in the past you had to give a sacrifice.
6. Ransom – Jesus’ life is a payment to ?
7. Redemption – marketplace concept to buy back.
8. Reconciliation – we broke the relationship but out of his love and mercy he invited us back. We are the ones that walked away so he is reconciling us.
1. to be head of all thing
2. to give us gifts
3. to perfect our salvation
4. to give us the holy spirit
5. to defeat death thus insuring our own resurrection
author of acts
holy spirits ministry
- our helper, comforter
- baptizes us, the process of which we become members of God’s family.
- Sealed us
- Fills us – we are his temple
- Our teacher – guide into all truth and reminds us of what Jesus taught.
- Gives us gifts, equipping us to serve God.
- Prays for us
- Our deposit (down payment) – payment in full to be received later in heaven.
- According to the New Testament a person cannot be a Christian without the Holy Spirit.
1st missionary highlights
- In 47 AD Paul, Barnabus, an John Mark flee to the Roman controlled island of Cyprus.
- In Cyprus they talk to the Pro Council about Jesus. The talk is interrupted by a Jewish false teacher (sorcerer), and Paul rebukes him telling him that he will be blind for a season. (And sure enough the sorcerer goes blind). As a result of this the Pro Council gives Barnibus, Paul, and John Mark a favorable hearing.
- Barnibus’ nickname is “the son of encouragement”
- They go to Perga and John Mark decides to go home. John Mark’s departure offends Paul (sees that John Mark is giving up)
- After this they go to Pisidian Antioch then to Iconium. (not apart of highlights)
- After they are rejected at Iconium, they continue to Lystra. Here Paul heals a lame man and locals think that Paul and Barnibus are gods (Jupiter and Mercury). After Paul tells the people that him and Barnibus are in fact not gods, Paul gets stoned by the people. Barnibus gets Paul up and they leave to Derbe where they back track the rest of their journey.
jerusalem council issue
- to decided if the Christian Jews should reach out to the Gentiles. They don’t understand how the Gentiles who never practiced Jewish law before Jesus can go straight to following Jesus. (This is the issue). Paul, Barnibus, and Peter are supporters to trying to outreach to the Gentiles.
jerusalem council decision
- The issue results in the Gentiles being outreached too. They decided at the council that the Gentiles do not need to be circumcised or go through any Old Testament law to become Gentile Christians.