breast cancer.txt

  1. Breast cancer
    • starts in breast tissue
    • two types: ductal and lobular
  2. Early detection of breast cancer
    • breast self-exam
    • clinical breast examination
    • screening mamography
    • early stages of breast cancer usually don't have symptoms, making regular exams important
  3. Early symptoms of breast cancer may include
    • lump in breast or armpit that is hard, has uneven edges and usually doesn't hurt
    • change in size, shape or feel of breast or nipple, including redness, nipple-dimpling and/or puckering of skin
    • nipple may leak fluid - bloody, clear to yellow, green or pus-like
  4. Symptoms of advanced breast cancer
    • bone pain
    • breast pain or discomfort
    • skin ulcers
    • swelling of one arm next to breast with cancer
    • weight loss
  5. Non-modifiable risk factors
    • age and gender
    • family history of breast cancer
    • genes
    • menstrual cycle
  6. Modifiable risk factors
    • tobacco use
    • excess alcohol use
    • childbirth
    • diethylstilbesterol
    • hormone replacement therapy
    • obesity
    • radiation therapy
  7. Diagnosis basedon history of symptoms and risk factors
    • physical examination
    • mammography
    • breast MRI
    • breast biopsy (needle aspiration or lumpectomy)
    • sentinel lymph node biopsy
    • CT and/or PET scan
    • breast ultrasound
  8. Breast cancer stages
    • 0-IV
    • cancer that has not spread is called ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) or noninvasive
    • 5-year survival rate refers to the number of patients who live at least 5 years after cancer stage is determined
  9. Stage 0 and DCIS (ductal carcinoma in situ)
    lumpectomy plus radiation therapy or mastectomy
  10. Stages I and II
    • lumpectomy plus radiation therapy or mastectomy with some sort of lymph node removal
    • hormone therapy, chemotherapy and biologic therapy may also be recommended following surgery
  11. Stage III
    • surgery
    • chemo
    • hormone therapy
    • biologic therapy
  12. Stage IV
    • surgery
    • radiation therapy
    • chemo
    • hormonal therapy
    • combination of above
  13. Breast cancer in men
    • breast lump
    • breast pain
    • breast tenderness
    • breast discharge
    • open sore
    • inverted nipple
Card Set
breast cancer.txt
Reproductive part 1, breast cancers