CSET Test Prep: English Subtest 2

  1. Proto-Indo-European Language
    • * Before 3000 b.c.
    • * Originated near the Caspian Sea
    • * Groups of speakers traveled to distant places
    • * Gradually developed into Farse (Persian), Hindi, Armenian, Sanskrit, Greek, Russion, Polish, Irish, Italian, French, Spanish, German, Dustch, Swedish, Norwegian, and English.
  2. Old English
    • 27 b.c. to a.d. 476
    • * Latin influenced languages of Europe, North Africa, and Middle East after Roman armies conquered the countries.
    • * Also influenced Britons, a Celtic people living in the British Isles
    • * 5th century a.d. England invaded by Anglo-Saxons who added Old Germanic tongue to Celtic of native Britons
    • * Vikings invaded the area and added Norse influence
    • * Resulting language is what we call Old English
  3. Middle English
    After invasion of England by William the Conquerer (1066), French was spoken by upper classes and used in courts and government, while the Catholic clergy wrote and spoke in Latin.

    Common people spoke English but were borrowing words from French, creating Middle English.

    Words resulting: government, justice, and literature
  4. Modern English
    Dates from rule of Henry VII in England (1485)

    Brought peace and promoted English

    After Columbus landed in New World, English sailors spread the English language through the Americas and Europe and enriched language with new words.

    • Modern English borrows many words from other languages.
    • * Spanish: banana, hammock, tobacco
    • *Central America: chocolate, potato, tomoato
    • * Netherlands: cruise, knapsack, landscape

    English now used worldwide with the spread of science and technology
  5. Transformation of English
    • 1. Proto-Indo-European
    • 2. Old English
    • 3. Middle English
    • 4. Modern English
  6. Grammatical Change over time: demonstrative prounouns
    In Old English, d.p. and adj were gender-specific and gender was determined by inflection. In Middle English, d.p. and adj became gender-neutral, as in this, these, that, and those.
  7. The Great Vowel Shift
    Period of time between 1450 and 1750 where the pronunciation of long vowels in English gradually changed. Exampe: e in where pronounced as a in late. By the sixteenth century it was pronounced as ee as in keep.
  8. Universal Grammar
    Grammar rules such as phrase structure and phonology shared by all human languages.
  9. Creolization
    The development of a language through the merging of two or more different languages.
  10. Morpheme
    The smallest unit of meaning in a language that cannot be further subdivided into meaninful linguistic parts.
  11. Free morpheme
    A morpheme that stands alone as a complete word. (Example: "bag")
  12. Bound morpheme
    A morpheme that must be attached to a word to have meaning. (Example: "s" in "runs")
  13. Inflectional suffix
    • * Add only grammatical information
    • * Never change the part of speech
    • Examples:
    • to nouns: -s, -'s (possessive)
    • to verbs: -ed, -ing, -en
    • to adjectives: -er, -est
  14. Derivational Suffix
    • * make a new word with a new meaning
    • * usually change the part of speech

    • Examples:
    • verb -> noun: speak + er
    • adj -> noun: economic + s
    • noun -> adj: person + al
    • verb -> adj: act + ive
    • noun -> verb: victim + ize
    • adj -> verb: vocal + ize
  15. Phoneme
    The smallest unit of speech sound that combines with other units of speech sound to form a word.
  16. The critical period of language
    The period of time in early childhood where humans' ability to learn language peaks.
  17. Affective factors of second-language acquisition
    • * Anxiety: older language learners fear ridicule or embarrasement more than younger learners and therefore are less willing to try new things
    • * Personality factors: extraverts acquire language better than introverts
    • * Motivation:
  18. Semantic feature analysis
    A reading comprehension activity using a chart to organize information by categories, analyze ideas, make comparisons, and make inferences about what they read.
  19. Code-switching
    A speaker alternates between separate language dialects according to the situation or effect.

    Elements of one dialect remain distinct from the other.

    Ranges from shifting between language style or between two languages.
  20. Prepositional phrase
    preposition + object + modifiers

    Example: My brother ate four whole hot dogs during the game.
  21. Appositional Phrase
    Identifies or describes a nearby noun.

    An embedded appositional phrase is set within the sentence rather than at the beginning or end of a sentence.
  22. Adverb Clause
    Phrases that begin with subordinating conjunctions and modify verbs, adjectives, and other adverbs.
  23. Modals
    English verbs (including can, would, and must) that are characteristically used with other verbs to express mood or tense.
  24. Hypercorrection
    Usage of a pronunciation or language rule that most speakers consider incorrect, but that the speaker uses through misunderstanding of rules. Example: dialect differences between "potato" and "puhtaytuh" where the speaker may hypercorrect others in their pronuncation to "puhtaytuh".
  25. Motherese
    "baby talk"

    * beneficial to infants because it imitates verbal interaction and the importance of verbal feedback

    * is more effective in getting a baby's attention because the acoustics appeal to infants
  26. Deep Structure
    A theoretical construct that seeks to unify several related structures.

    Example: "Pat loves Chris" and "Chris is loved by Pat" are said to have distinct surface forms but a common deep structure because they mean essentially the same thing.
  27. Grapheme
    A fundamental unit in a written language. Example: the letters in the English alphabet are all graphemes
Card Set
CSET Test Prep: English Subtest 2
Terms and information found in the second subtest as based on the test guides available online.