1. loss of range of motion in the shoulder

     aka frozen shoulder
    adhesive capsulitis
  2. injury to one of the stabilizing ligaments of the knee, which originates on the anterior portion of the femur
    anterior cruciate ligament tear
  3. condition of inflammation of the tiny fluid-filled sacs that act as cushions and provide lubrication to decrease friction and irritation between structures such as bones, tendons, muscles, and skin
  4. compression of the median nerve, causing pain or numbness in the wrist, hand, and fingers
    • CPS
    • carpal tunnel syndrome
  5. condition in which the metatarsophalangeal (MTP) joint flexes dorsally while the other joint or joints in the toe flex toward the sole
    claw toe
  6. fibrosis of connective tissue which decreases the mobility of a joint
  7. grating sound from broken bones, or a clicking or crackling sound from joints
  8. displacement or separation of a bone from its normal position where it articulates with another bone
  9. test used to evaluate and record the electrical activity produced by skeletal muscles; used to diagnose neuromuscular disorders
    • EMG
    • electromyography
  10. chronic condition marked by pain in the muscles, tendons, ligaments, and soft tissues of the body
  11. condition in which a bone is broken or cracked
  12. condition in which one or more small, benign tumors filled with a thick, colorless, gelatinous substance develop over a joint or tendon, usually on the wrist or back of the hand

    aka bible cyst
    ganglion cyst
  13. hereditary form of arthritis, characterized by uric acid accumulation in the joints, especially in the great toe
  14. condition in which degenerative arthritis affects the metatarsophalangeal (MTP) joint at the base of the big toe, causing pain and stiffness
    hallux rigidus
  15. condition in which the big toe is improperly aligned, pointing laterally toward the second toe and creating a large bump on teh inner edge of the foot at the base of the big toe, -> bunion
    hallux valgus
  16. condition in which the toe is bent downward at the proximal interphalangeal (PIP) joint
  17. herniation of the soft center of an intervertebral disk
    herniated disk
  18. disorder similar to adult-onset RA, with earlier onset and more severe symptoms
    • JRA
    • juvenile rheumatoid arthritis
  19. abnormal increase in the curvature of the thoracic vertebrae, causing hunchback
  20. abnormal increase in the curvature of the lumbar vertebrae, causing swayback
  21. condition in which the toe is bent downward at the distal interphalangeal (DIP) joint
    mallet toe
  22. painful condition involving tiny tears in the muscles and tendons that attach to the anterior tibia (shin)

    ->shin splints
    medial tibial syndrome
  23. tear of one of the two C-shaped cartilage structures that serve to cushion and stabilize the knee joint, usually caused by a twisting force
    meniscal tear
  24. hereditary, progressive, terminal disease that causes muscle atrophy and death, usually by age 20
    • MD
    • muscular dystrophy
  25. autoimmune motor disorder that causes progressive muscle fatigue and weakness
    myasthenia gravis
  26. chronic condition in which the process of bone destruction and regrowth occurs abnormally, causing weak, fragile, enlarged, and misshapen bones

    -> paget disease
    osteitis deformans
  27. condition of cartilage deterioration and joint inflammation marked by pain, stiffness, and decreased ROM, most commonly affecting synovial weight-bearing joints and vertebrae
  28. condition of softening and weakening of the bones; when it occurs in children its called rickets
  29. acute or chronic infection within the bone, most commonly affecting the legs, arms, pelvis, and spine
  30. condition characterized by loss of bone mass throughtout the skeleton
  31. breaking of diseased, weakened bone from the stress of normal everyday activities
    pathological fracture
  32. painful condition of the supporting structures of the arch of the foot, primarily the plantar fascia, a band of tissue that connects the hell with the toes
    plantar fasciitis
  33. autoimmune arthritis that causes progressive joint pain and deformity and may affect organ systems
    rheumatoid arthritis (RA)
  34. traumatic rip of one or more of the muscles or tendons within the rotator cuff of the shoulder
    rotator cuff tear
  35. abnormal S-shaped lateral curvature of the vertebrae
  36. complete or incomplete tear in the ligaments around a joint
  37. trauma to a muscle, and sometimes a tendon, due to violent contraction or excessive forcible stretching
  38. inflammation of a tendon due to overuse
  39. group of painful disorders involving compression of the nerves or vessels in the neck and arms
    • TOS
    • thoracic outlet syndrome
  40. radiological examination of a joint after injection of a contrast fluid into the joint space
  41. removal of a bone marrow specimen from the cortex of a flat bone for analysis
    bone marrow aspiration
  42. use of a gamma camera to detect abnormalities in bone density after injection of radioactive material
    bone scan
  43. test to measure isoenzyme released by skeletal and cardiac muscle into the blood when they are damaged
    • CK
    • creatine kinase
  44. application of cold, such as with ice compresses, to decrease inflammation and pain
  45. radiological evaluation of bone density to detect osteoporosis
    • DXA
    • dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry
  46. record of skeletal-muscle electrical activity, used to diagnose neuromuscular disorders
    • EMG
    • electromyogram
  47. rate at which RBCs settle in a tube of unclotted blood; an elevated ESR indicates inflammation
    ESR, sed rate

    Erythrocyte sedimentation rate
  48. blood test used to identify rheumatoid arthritis and other disorders
    rheumatoid factor
  49. procedure to replace an arthritic hip with a prosthetic device to restore mobility and function

    --> total hip arthroplasty
    • THR
    • total hip replacement
  50. delivery of a mild electrical current to a painful area, to disrupt transmission of pain signals between the body and brain
    • TENS
    • transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation
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