1. Cyst/o , Vesic/o
    Bladder, sac
  2. Glomerul/o
  3. Meat/o
  4. nephr/o , ren/o
  5. pyel/o
    renal pelvis
  6. ureter/o
  7. urethr/o
  8. almumin/o
  9. azot/o
    urea, nitrogen
  10. blast/o
    developing cell, germ cell
  11. lith/o
    stone, calculus
  12. olig/o
    scanty, few
  13. son/o
  14. tom/o
    cut, section
  15. urin/o, ur/o
    urine, urinary tract
  16. -gram
    record, radiographic image
  17. -iasis , -esis
  18. -lysis
    lossening, dissolution, separating
  19. -ptosis
    drooping, sagging, prolapse
  20. -rrhaphy
    suturing, repairing
  21. -tripsy
    surgical crushing
  22. -trophy
    nourishment, development
  23. -uria
    urine, urination
  24. azotemia
    condition of urea in the blood, also called uremia
  25. cystitis
    inflammation of the bladder
  26. cystocele
    protrusion of the bladder
  27. cystolith
    stone in the bladder
  28. hydronephrosis
    abnormal condition of water in the kidney.  Distention of the renal pelvis with urine because of an obstruction
  29. nephroblastoma
    kidney tumor containing developing cells, aka Wilms tumor
  30. Nephrolithiasis
    condition of stones in the kidney
  31. Nephroma
    tumor of the kidney
  32. Nephroptosis
    drooping of the kidney
  33. Pyelitis
    inflammation of the renal pelvis
  34. Pyelonephritis
    inflammation of the renal pelvis and kidney
  35. Ureterocele
    protrusion of a ureter
  36. Ureterolithiasis
     condition of stones in the ureters
  37. Ureterstenosis
    narrowing of the ureter
  38. Urethyocystitis
    inflammation of the urethra and the bladder
  39. epispadias
    congenital defect in which the urinary meatus is located on the upper surface of the penis
  40. hypospadias
    congenital defect in which the urinary meatus is located in the underside of the penis
  41. polycystic kidney disease
    condition in which the kidney contains many cysts and is enlarged
  42. renal calculus
    stone in the kidney
  43. renal failure
    loss of kidney function resulting in its inability to remove waste products from the body and maintain electrolyte balance
  44. renal hypertension
    elevated blood pressure resulting from kidney  disease
  45. urinary retention
    abnormal accumulation of urine in the bladder because of an inability to urinate
  46. urinary suppression 
    sudden stoppage of urine formation
  47. UTI
    infection of one or more organs of the urinary tract
  48. cystectomy
    excision of the bladder
  49. cystolithotomy
    incision of the bladder to remove a stone
  50. cystorrhaphy
    suturing of the bladder
  51. cystostomy
    creating an artificial opening into the bladder
  52. cystotomy, vesicotomy
    incision into the bladder
  53. lithotripsy
    surgical crushing of a stone
  54. meatotomy
    incision into the meatus
  55. nephrectomy
    excision of a kidney
  56. nephrolithotomy
    incision of a kidney to remove a stone
  57. nephrolithotripsy
    surgical crushing of a stone in the kidney
  58. nephrolysis
    separating the kidney
  59. nephropexy
    surgical fixation of the kidney
  60. nephrostomy
    creation of an artificial opening into the kidney
  61. pyelolithotomy
    incision of the renal pelvis to remove a stone
  62. pyeloplasty
    surgical repair of the renal pelvis
  63. ureterectomy
    excision of a ureter
  64. vesicourethral suspension
    suspension pertaining to the bladder and urethra
  65. extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy
    a noninvasive treatment for removal of kidney stones or ureteral stones.  By using ultrasound and flouroscopic imaging, the stone is positioned at a focal point.   AKA shock wave lithotripsy
  66. Fulguration
    destruction of living tissue with an electric spark
  67. Renal Transplant
    surgical implantation of a donor kidney to replace a nonfunctioning kidney
  68. cystogram
    radiographic image of the bladder
  69. cystography
    radiographic imaging of the bladder
  70. Intravenous Urogram (IVU)
    intravenous image of the urinary tract 
  71. nephrogram
    radiograpic image of the kidney
  72. nephrography
    radiagraphic imaging of the kidney.  AKA renogram
  73. Nephrosonography
    process of recording the kidney using sound
  74. Nephrotomogram
    sectional radiographic image of the kidney
  75. renogram
    graphic record of the kidney
  76. retrograde urogram
    radgiographic image of the urinary tract 
  77. Voiding Cystourethrography
    radigraphic imaging of the bladder and the urethra
  78. cystoscope
    instrument used for visual examination of the bladder
  79. cystoscopy
    visual examination of the bladder
  80. nephroscopy
    visual examination of the kidney
  81. ureteroscopy
    visual examination of the ureter
  82. urethroscppe
    instrument used for visual examination of the urethra
  83. BUN
    blood urea nitrogen
  84. KUB
    a simple radiographic image of the abdomen.  It is often used to view kidneys, ureters, and bladder to determine size, shape, and location.
  85. Creatinine
    A blood test that measures the amount of creatinine in the blood.  An elevated amount may indicate impaired kidney function.
  86. Specific Gravity (SG)
    a test performed on a urine speciment to measure the concetrating or diluting ability of the kidneys
  87. albuminuria
    albumin in the urine
  88. diuresis
    condition of urine passing through (increased amount of urine)
  89. hematuria
    blood in the urine
  90. meatal
    pertaining to the meatus
  91. nocturia 
    nightime urination
  92. oliguria
    scanty urination
  93. pyuria
    pus in the urine
  94. distended
    stretched out
  95. enuresis
    involuntary urination
  96. hemodialysis (HD)
    procedure for removing impurities from the blood because of an inability of the kidneys to do so
  97. incontinence
    inability to control the bladder and or bowels
  98. micturate
    to urinate or void
  99. Peritoneal Dialysis
    procedure for removing toxic wastes when the kidney is unable to do sol the peritoneal cavity is used as the receptacle for the fluid used
  100. Stricture
    abnormal narrowing, such as urethral stricture
  101. Urodynamics
    pertaining to the force and flow of urine withing the urinary tract
  102. ARF
    acute renal failure
  103. BUN
    blood urea nitrogen
  104. CRF
    chronic renal failure
  105. ESRD
    end-stage renal disease
  106. ESWL
    extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy
  107. HD
  108. IVP
    intravenous pyleogram
  109. IVU
    intravenous urogram
  110. OAB
    overactive bladder
  111. SG
    specific gravity
  112. UA
  113. VCUG
    voiding cystourehthtogram
  114. zygote
    fertilized egg
  115. Seminiferous Tubules
    approx 900 coiled tubes within the testes in which spermatogenesis occurs
  116. Vas Deferens, Ductus Deferens, or Seminal Duct
    duct carrying the sperm from the epididymis to the urethra.  The spermatic cord encloses each vas deferens with nerves, pymphatic, arteries, and veins.  The urethra also connects with the urinary bladder and carries urine outside the body.  A circular muscle constricts during intercourse to prevent urination.
  117. Seminal Vesicles
    two main glands located at the base of teh bladder that open into the vas deferens.  the glands secrete a thick fluid, which forms part of the semen.
  118. Prostate Gland
    encircles the upper end of the urethra.  the prostate gland secretes a fluid that aids in the movement of the sperm and ejaculation
  119. Glans Penis
    enlarged tip at the end of the penis
  120. Prepuce
    fold of skin convering the glans penis
  121. Semen 
    composed of sperm, seminal fluids, and other secretions
  122. balan/o
    glans penis
  123. orchid/o, orchi/o, orch/o, test/o
    testis, testicle
  124. vas/o
    vessel, duct
  125. Vesicul/o
    seminal vesicle
  126. andr/o
  127. sperm/o, spermat/o
  128. -ism
    state of
  129. anorchism
    state of absence of testis
  130. balanitis
    inflammation of the glans penis
  131. balanorrhea
    discharge from the glans penis
  132. benign prostatic hyperplasia
    excessive development pertaining to the prostate gland
  133. cryptorchidism
    state of hidden testis
  134. orchiepipidymitis
    inflammation of nuts
  135. prostatocystitis
    inflammation of the prostate gland and the bladder
  136. prostalolith
    stone in the prostate gland
  137. Hydrocele
    scrotal swelling caused by a collection of fluid
  138. Phimosis
    A tightness of the prepuce that prevents it retraction over the glans; it may be congenital or a result of balanitits.
  139. Priapism
    persistent abnormal erection of the penis accompanied by pain and tenderness
  140. Prostate Cancer
    cancer of the prostate gland, usually occurs later in life
  141. Testicular Torsion
    twisting of the spermatic cord causing decreased blood flow to the testis; occurs most often during puberty and often presents with a sudden onset of severe testicular or scrotal pain.  Often a surgical emergency
  142. Varicocele
    elarged veins of the spermatic cord
  143. balanoplasty 
    surgical repair of the glans penis
  144. epididymectomy
    excision of the epodidymis
  145. Orchidotomy, oorchiotomy
    incision into the testes
  146. Prostatocystotomy
    incision into the prostate gland and bladder
  147. Prostatolithotomy
    incision into the prostate gland to remove a stone
  148. Prostatovesiculectomy
    excision of the prostate gland and seminal vesicles
  149. vasectomy
    excision of a duct
  150. vasovasostomy
    creation of artificial opening between ducts 
  151. vesiculectomy
    excision of the seminal vesicles
  152. Hydrocelectomy
    surgical removal of a hydrocele
  153. Radical Prostatectomy (RP)
    excision of the prostate gland through an abdominal incision made above the pubic bone and through an incision in the bladder; used to treat benign prostatic hyperplasia and prostate cancer.   AKA suprapubic transvesical prostatectomy
  154. Transurethral Incision of the Prostate Gland (TUIP)
    a surgical procedure that widens the urethra by making a few small incisions in the bladder neck and the prostate gland.   No prostate tissue is removed.  TUIP may be used instead of TURP when the prostate gland is less enlarged.
  155. Transurethral Microwave Thermotherapy (TUMT)
    a treatment that eliminates excess tissue present in benign prostatic hyperplasia by using heat generated by microwave
  156. Transurethral Resection of the Prostate Gland (TURP)
    surgical removal of pieces of the prostate gland tissue by using a resectoscope inserted through the urethra.  The capsule is left intact; usually performed when the enlarged prostate gland interferes with urination.
  157. Transrectal Ultrasound (TRUS)
    an ultrasound procedure used to diagnose prostate cancer.  Sound waves are sent and received by a transducer in the form of a probe that is placed into the rectum.  The sound waves are transformed into an image of the prostate gland.
  158. Prostate-Specific Antigen (PSA)
    a blood test that measures the level of prostate-specific antigen in the blood.
  159. Andropathy
    disease of the male
  160. Aspermia
    condition of being without sperm
  161. oligospermia
    condition of scanty sperm
  162. spermatolysis
    dissolution of sperm
  163. Azoospermia
    lack of live sperm in the semen
  164. Chlamydia
    A sexuallt transmitted disease, sometimes called the silent STD.  Symptoms that occyr when the disease becomes serious are painful urination anbd discharge from the penis in men and genital itching, vaginal discharge, and bleeding between menstrual periods in woman.
  165. Genital Herpes
    STD caused by the simplex virus
  166. Trichomoniasis
    An STD caused by a one cell organism.  
  167. DRE
    digital rectal exam
  168. PSA
    prostate-specific antigen
  169. RP
    radical prostatectomy
  170. Ovaries
    pair of almond shaped organs located in the pelvic cavity. egg cells are formed and stored in the ovaries.
  171. Ovum
    female egg cell
  172. Graafian Follicles
    100,000 microscopic sacs that make up a large portion of the ovaries.  Each follice contains an immature ovum.  
  173. Uterus
    pear sized and shaped organ that lies in the pelvic cavity, except during pregnancy when it enlarges and extends up into the abdominal cavity.
  174. Corpus, or body
    large central part of the uterus
  175. Fundus
    rounded upper portion of the uterus
  176. Cervix (Cx) 
    narrow lower portion of the uterus
  177. Hymen
    fold of membrane found near the opening of the vagina
  178. Rectouterine Pouch
    pouch between the posterior wall of the uterus and the anterior wall of the rectum.  AKA Douglas cul-de-sac
  179. Bartholin Glands
    pair of mucous-producing glands located on each side of the vagina and just above the vaginal opening
  180. Mammary Papilla 
    breast nipple
  181. Areola
    pigmented area around the breast nipple
  182. Vulva
    two pairs of lips that surround the vagina
  183. Perineum
    Pelvic floor in males and females.
  184. arche/o
    first, beginning
  185. cervic/o
  186. colp/o, vagin/o
  187. culd/o
  188. episi/o, vulv/o
  189. gynec/o, gyn/o
  190. hyster/o, metr/o, metrr/i
  191. mamm/o, mast/o
  192. men/o 
  193. oophor/o
  194. perine/o
  195. salping/o
    uterine tube (fallopian tube)
  196. peri-
  197. -atresia
    absence of a normal body opening; occlusion; closure
  198. -salpinx
    uterine tube
  199. amenorrhea
    absence of menstrual discharge
  200. Bartholin Adenitits
    inflammation of a Bartholin gland
  201. Colpitis, vaginitis
    inflammation of the vagina
  202. Endocervicitis
    inflammation of the inner lining of the cervix
  203. Hematosalpinx
    blood in the uterine tube
  204. Hysteratresia
    colsure of the uterus
  205. mastitis
    inflammation of the breasts
  206. metrorrhagia
    rapid flow of blood from the uterus at menstruation
  207. pyosalpinx
    pus in the uterine tube
  208. Salpingitis
    inflammation of the uterine tube
  209. adenomyosis
     growth of endometrium into the muscular portion of the uterus
  210. endometriosis
    abnormal condition in which endometrial tissue grows outside of the uterus in various areas in teh pelvix cavity, including ovaries, uterine tubes, intestines, and uterus
  211. Fibrocystic Breast Disease
    a disorder characterized by one or more benign cysts in the breast
  212. Pelvic Inflammatory Disease
    inflammation of female pelvic organs
  213. Prolapsed uterus
    downward displacement of the uterus into the vagina
  214. Vesicovaginal Fistula
    abnormal opening betwen the bladder and the vagina
  215. Colpoperineorrhaphy
    suture of the vagina and perineum
  216. coloplasty
    surgical repair of the vagina
  217. episioperineoplasty
    surgical repair of vulva and perineum
  218. episiorrhaphy
    suture of a tear in the vulva
  219. hysterectomy
    excision of the uterus
  220. hysteropexy
    surgical fixation of the uterus
  221. mastectomy
    surgical removal of a breast
  222. perineorrhaphy
    suture in the perineum
  223. salpingectomy 
    excision of a uterine tube
  224. salpingostomy
    creation of an artificial opening in a uterine tube
  225. Anterior and Posterior Colporrhaphy
    surgical repair of a weakened vaginal wall to correct a cystocele and a rectocele
  226. conization
    surgical removal of a cone shaped area of the cervix AKA cone biopsy
  227. Dilation and Curettage
    dilation of the cervix and scraping of the endometrium with an instrument called a curette.  
  228. endometrial ablation
    procedure to destroy or remove the endometrium by use of laser or thermal energy
  229. tubal ligation
    closure of the uterine tubes for sterilization by tying 
  230. colposcope
    instrument used for visual examination of the vagina
  231. culdoscope
    instrument used for visual examination of the cul-de-sac
  232. culdocentesis
    surgical punsture to remove fluid from the cul-de-sac
  233. leukorrhea
    white discharge from the vagina
  234. mastalgia
    pain in the breast
  235. mastoptosis
    sagging breast
  236. dyspareunia
    difficult or painful intercourse
  237. fistula
    abnormal passageway between two organs or between an internal organ and the body surface
  238. menopause
    cessation of menstruation, usually around the ages of 48 to 53
  239. Speculum
    instrument for opening a body cavity to allow for visual examination
  240. D&C
    dilation and curettage
  241. FBD
    fibrocystic breast disease
  242. PID 
    pelvic inflammatory disease
  243. TVH
    total vaginal hysterectomy
  244. UAE
    uterine artery embolization
  245. Gamete
    mature germ cell, either sperm or ovum
  246. ovulation
    expulsion of a mature ovum from an ovary
  247. conception, or fetilization
    beginning of pregnancy, when the sperm enters the ovum.   fertilization normally occurs in the uterine tubes
  248. zygote
    cell formed by the union of the sperm and the ovum
  249. fetus
    unborn offspring from the beginning of the ninth week of pregnancy until birth
  250. gestation, pregnancy
    development of a new individual from conception to birth
  251. placenta, or afterbirth
    a structure that grows on the wall of the uterus during pregnancy and allows for nourishment of the unborn child
  252. chorion
    outermost layer of the fetal membrane
  253. amnion 
    innermost layer of the fetal membrane
  254. amni/o, amnion/o
    amnion, amniotic fluid
  255. chori/o
  256. fet/o , fet/i
    fetus, unborn child
  257. gravid/o
  258. lact/o
  259. nat/o
  260. omphal/o
    umbilicus, navel
  261. par/o , part/o
    bear, give birth to, labor, childbirth
  262. puerper/o
  263. cephal/o
  264. pelv/o , pelv/i
    pelvic bone
  265. prim/i
  266. pseud/o
  267. pylor/o
  268. terat/o
  269. ante- , pre-
  270. micro- 
  271. multi-
  272. nulli-
  273. post-
  274. -amnios
    amnion, amniotic fluid
  275. -cyesis
  276. -partum
    childbirth, labor
  277. -rrhexis
  278. -tocia
    birth, labor
  279. amnionitis
    inflammation of the amnion
  280. chorioamnionitis
    inflammation of the chorion and amnion
  281. choriocarcinoma
    cancerous tumor of the chorion
  282. dystocia
    difficult labor
  283. hysterorrhexis
    rupture of the uterus
  284. oligohydramnios
    scanty amnion water
  285. polyhydramnios
    much amnion water
  286. abruptio placentae
    premature separation of the placenta from the uterine wall
  287. eclampsia
    severe complication and progression of preeclampsia characterized by convulsion.
  288. ectopic pregnancy
    pregnancy occuring outside of the uterus commonly in the uterine tubes
  289. placenta previa
    abnormally low implantationo of the placenta on the uterine wall completely or partially convering the cervix.
  290. preeclampsia
    abnormal condition encountered during pregnancy or shortly after delivery characterized by high BP, edema, and proteinuria, but with no convulsions.  
  291. microcephalus
    fetus with a very small head
  292. omphalitis
    inflammation of the umbilicus
  293. omphalocele
    herniation of the umbilicus
  294. pyloric stenosis
    narrowing pertaining to the pyloric sphincter
  295. tracheoesophageal fistula
    abnormal passageway pertaining to the esophagus and the trachea
  296. Cleft Lip and Palate
    congenital split of the lip and roof of the mouth
  297. Down Syndrome
    genetic condition characterized by varying degrees of mental retardation and multiple defects.  AKA Mongolism
  298. Erythroblastosis Fetalis
    Condition of the newborn characterized by hemolysis of the red blood cells.  The condition is usually caused by incompatibility of the infants and mother blood, occuring when the mother blood is Rh negative and the infants is positive.
  299. Esophageal Atresia
    Congenital absence of part of the esophagus.  Food cannot pass from the babys mouth to the stomach.
  300. Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS)
    A condition caused by excessive alcohol consumption by the mother during pregnancy.  Various birth defects may present, including central nervous system dysfunction and malformations of the skull and face.
  301. Gastroschisis
    A congenital fissure of the abdominal wall not at the umbilicus.  Enterocele, protrusion of the intestine, is usually present.
  302. Respiratory Distress Syndrome (RDS)
    A respiratory complication in the newborn, especially in premature infants.  In premature infants RDS is caused by normal immaturity of the resp. system resulting in compromised respiration.
  303. Spina Bifida
    Congenital defect in the vertebral column caused by the failure of the vertebral arch to close.  If the meninges protrude through the opening the condition is called meningocele.  Protrusion of both the meninges and spinal cord is called meningomyelocele. 
  304. Amniotomy
    incision into the amnion
  305. Episiotomy
    incision of the vulva
  306. Amniocentesis
    surgical puncture to aspirate amniotic fluid.
  307. amniochorial
    pertaining to the amnion and chorion
  308. amniorrhexis
    rupture of the amnion
  309. antepartum
    before childbirth
  310. gravidopuerperal
    pertaining to pregnany and childbirth
  311. multipara
    many births
  312. natal
    pertaining to birth
  313. Neonate
    new birth
  314. Nullipara
    no births
  315. para
  316. primigravida
    first pregnancy
  317. pseudocyesis
    false pregnancy
  318. puerperal
    pertaining to immediately after birth
  319. teratogen
    any agent producing malformations in the developing embryo.  
  320. colostrum
    thin, milky fluid secreted by the breast during pregnancy and during the first days of birth
  321. congenital anomaly
    abnormality present at birth
  322. lochia
    vaginal discharge after childbirth
  323. meconium
    first stool of the newborn
  324. parturition
    act of giving birth
  325. puerperium
    period from delivery until the reproductive organs return to normal
  326. stillborn
    born dead
  327. Breech Presentation
    birth position in which the butt, feet, or knees emerge first
  328. CS , C-section
    cesarean section
  329. DOB
    date of birth
  330. EDD
    expected date of delivery
  331. FAS
    fetal alcohol syndrome
  332. IVF
    in vitro fertilization
  333. LMP
    last menstrual period
  334. multip
  335. NB
  336. OB
  337. RDS 
    respiratory distress syndrome
  338. VBAC
    vaginal birth after c-section
Card Set