Emergent reality- Truth emergees as new properties are added.
Bio, soc, phsy, are always "something more"
A reseacher's personal beliefs or opinons
causation what is needed for it to happen?
1. Time order
2. Correlation (not alone can cause causation)
3. control for extraneous (unkown) variables
best used for spurious relationships
The orgins of sociology
The french & industrial revolution
3 major theoretical perspectives of sociology
1. Functionalism- views society as an organism/system that is always striving for ewualibrium
2. Conflict theory- Views soceity as competing groups. never acheieving equalibrium always changing
3. interactions- focus is on the day-to-day interactions of societal members. examines how society constructed through interactions
The sociological imagination- The ability of mind to grasp the intersection of your own
biographical line with the line of history.
- Personal Trouble perspective – Attempt to explain things
- from a personal (biographical) perspective.
- Public Issues perspective - Attempt to explain things from the
- structural perspective.
Norms (Social rules that specify appropriate and inappropriate
behavior in given situations.)
- Folkways- Norms people do not deem to be of great
- importance and to which they exact less stringent conformity.
- People who violate them are viewed as “strange” or “different”.
- Mores- Norms to which people attach a good deal of
- importance and exact strict conformity. People who violate them
- are viewed as “evil” or “sinful”.
- Laws- that are enforced by a special political organization
- composed of individuals who enjoy the right to use force.
- People who violate them are viewed as “criminal”.
He studied that all crime is done in every country it's natural
- A social structure made up of a hierarchy of statuses
- and roles that is prescribed by explicit rules and procedures and based
- on a division of function and authority
Iron law of oligarchy-
The principle that states that bureaucracies invariably lead to the concentration of power in the hands of a few individuals who use their offices to advance their own fortunes and selfinterests
The social heritage of a people; those learned patterns for thinking, feeling, and acting that are transmitted from one generation to the next, including the embodiment of these patterns in material items.
The tendency to judge the behavior of other groups by the standards of one's own culture.
Cultural Relativism/ inuits-
- A value-free or neutral approach that views the behavior of a “people” from the perspective of their own
- culture. Examining the behavior in other cultures in light of the values, beliefs, and motives of each particular culture.
a group whos members participate in the main culture in soceity while simutaneously sharing a number of unique values, norms, traditions & lifestyles.
a subculture whos norms are substanitally at odds with those of the larger soceity.
Focuses upon large-scale and long-term social processes of organizations, institutions, and broad social patterns.
The detailed study of what people say, do, and think moment by moment as they go about their daily lives.
Broad sociological perspective that helps us understand social processes in many settings.
Acts or objects that have come to be socially accepted as standing for something else. Gestures, language and physical objects are symbols.
What is cooley's looking glass?
Looking-glass Self: The term that is applied to the process by which we imaginatively assume the stance of other people and view ourselves as we believe they see us.
The generalized other?
The term George Herbert Mead applied to the social unit that gives individuals their unity of self. Basically, it is the total impression of judgments and expectations that other people hold toward you (the observer).
The Thomas Theorem- (The situation)
- Definition of the Situation (Thomas Theorem) A concept formulated by William I:
- Thomas, which refers to the interpretation or meaning people give to their immediate circumstances.
- “If a person defines a situation as real, it is real in its consequences.”
a status that individuals secure on the basis of choice & competition
a status assigned to a individual by a group of society.
Front stage is where the performance takes place and the performers and the audience are present.
Back stage is where performers are present but audience is not, and the performers can step out of character without fear of disrupting the performance.
The actual behavior of the person who occupies a status.
Groups ( Two or more people who share a feeling of unity and who
are bound together in relatively stable patterns of social interaction)
Secondary- Two or more people who are involved in an impersonal relationship and have come together for a specific, practical purpose.
Primary- Two or more people who enjoy a direct, intimate, cohesive relationship with one another.
Who are the Nacerima?
The people of niram
- Behavior that violates a norm.
- Deviance is socially constructed and reaction to it reflects the social norms and values within a society.
- Deviance can vary over time both within and across societies.
Since DEVIANCE appears in all societies, deviance/crime is functional.
- Its functions are:
- 1. Reacting publically to deviance can promote
- conformity. In group/out group
- 2. Societies response to it helps outline the values
- and norms of the society and clarifies the moral
- 3. Provides the “glue“ that unites and integrates
- individuals into the larger society, which
- promotes overall social solidarity.
- 4. Can be the driving force behind social change.
- (People violate norms to get “unjust” situations
Anomie - A social condition in which people find it difficult to guide their behavior by norms they experience as weak, unclear, or conflicting.
- Anomie Theory
- Cultural Transmission Theory
- Conflict theory
- Labeling theory
- Control theory
- – Durkheim’s Anomie
- – Merton’s Structural Strain
- – Cohen’s Status Frustration
– Sutherland’s Differential Association
– Marx, et. al.
- Lemert, Erickson, et. al.
- Hirschi’s Control Theory
Social control includes social mechanisms that regulate individual and group behavior, leading to conformity and compliances to the rules of a given society or social group
Informal sanctions may include shame, ridicule, sarcasm, criticism and disapproval
formal sanctions are things like laws. they can be positive or negative and have set consequences if one violates a norm