What is the name of an infection in the outer ear (pinna/ auricle)?
Maximum hearing loss that would be considered moderate with a normal inner ear would be approximately how many dB's?
A malformation of a small ear is known as what?
A malformation of complete absence of the auricle is known as what?
A malformation of a "no hole" (absense of external auditory canal) is known as what?
Benign tumor in the external ear canal composed of bony tissue (true neoplasm); usually occur in only one ear; point of attachment is usually focal rather than broad based as is the case in exostoses
Benign bony growth in the external ear canal (hereditary, reactive, or developmental); more common; occur primarily in cold-water swimmers; tend to occur in both ears
A hole in the tympanic membrane; strict water precautions
A perforation may result from what?
1) Middle ear infections
2) Physical trauma directly to the tympanic membrane or as a result of concussive traumas such as a blow to the head or very loud noise
3) Barotrauma- changes in pressure
"benign, non-progressive, degenerative changes in the connective tissue layer of the tympanic membrane following repeated inflammatory disease of the middle ear and also following the placement of tympanostomy tubes"
What are the causes of middle ear eustachian tube dysfunctions?
1) Inflammation of the nasopharynx
2) Anatomical differences
3) Growth of a mass in the nasopharynx
inflammation or infection of the middle ear space; fluid in the middle ear space which is normally filled with air; sometimes infectious agent in the fluid; potential degenerative changes in the tissues of the middle ear
Body uses white blood cells to combat infection; these white blood cells interact with the infection to form a fluid-like substance called _____________.
_________ is known as the formation of pus.
_________ contains pus.
___________ is ear pain.
What is Otitis media with fluid?
Otitis Media with Effusion (OME)
Fluid is thin and watery (non- supperative), without signs of infection; may thicken and form "glue ear" which causes greater hearing loss.
Serous otitis media (SOM)
Presence of infected fluid in the middle ear; acute supperative otitis media
Acute Otitis Media
Benign vascular middle ear tumor
Unresolved infection of the middle ear space; resulting corrosion can damage structures in and near the middle ear space such as: the facial nerve, the inner ear, and the brain
Chronic Otitis Media
"a cystic mass composed of epithelial cells and cholesterol that is found in the middle ear and occurs as a congenital defect or as a serious complication otitis media"; benign; incidence 3 per 100,000 in children; can be congenital; has a white pearl-like apperance; may eventually envelope the ossicular chain; can erode bone protecting the brain
Deep inward displacement of the tympanic membrane
Progressive disorder of bone regrowth; cause unknown; present in 10% of the population and clinically significant in 10% of those affected
The ____________ ____________ can be disrupted by trauma and result in disconnection of the chain.
The most typical site of disconnection of the ossicles are between the _____________ and the __________.
Group of symptoms that occur together with the same cause; some examples that affect the middle ear are Treacher Collins Syndrome (atresia, ossicular malformation or fixation, auricular malformations such as microtia)
Results from a genetic mutation; malformations of skull, midface, hands and feet; broad skull, bulging in the temporal area, and retrusion and vertical shortening of the maxilla; 1 per 160,000 to 200,000 births
fused fingers and toes
What are some other causes of congenital or early onset hearing loss?
Prenatal infections, maternal drug ingestion, exposure to environmental toxins, neonatal health status, postnatal acquired such as bacterial meningitis
What are some infectious diseases affecting the inner ear?
Some medications and other chemical substances can damage hair cells and interfere with the metabolism of the inner ear
What are some facts about inner ear sudden onset hearing loss?
1. cause usually undetermined
2. usually occurs in one ear
3. varying degrees of severity
4. balance may be affected
5. treatment includes steroid therapy, antiviral therapy, and antibiotic therapy. Treatment must be done immediately.
excess endolymph damages structures in the inner ear; either too much fluid is being secreted or the fluid is not being reabsorbed properly; no cure, management with drugs, diet, surgery is controversial; symptoms include unilateral low frequency hearing loss, roaring tinnitus, feeling of fullness or pressure in the ear; balance problems/dizziness; eventually both ears may be affected
Meniere's Disease/Endolymphatic Hydrops
Exposure to brief intense noise
habitual exposure to loud sound
Noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL)
What is the name of the hearing loss associated with aging? 46% of adults age 46-92 years have hearing loss; more common in older males than older females; gradual onset, progressive, in both ears, affects higher frequencies first
Acoustic nerve tumors are known as what? They are typically benign and typically in one ear
Acoustic neuroma, more accurately: VIIIth nerve schwannoma
What are some other conditions in which auditory nerve function can be affected?
Blood supply insufficiency and multiple sclerosis
A deficit in processing of acoustic stimuli; can co-exist with other deficits such as language, attention, and cognitive problems; can occur when there is a lesion or tumor in the central auditory system
Central Auditory Processing Disorders (CAPD) or (APD)
The branch of the physical sciences that concerns sound and vibrations; sound originates from movement generated in an elastic medium
In air, sound is the result of movement of air particles. When air molecules are packed closely together, the density per unit of area is greater than normal. This condition is known as what?
Compression or Condensation
When molecules are less dense than normal, the condition is known as what?
Sound waves radiate in all directions; when a sound wave encounters a barrier, some of the energy is absorbed by the surface of the obstruction, and the rest of the energy is reflected
When there are no reflections of sound wave, this is known as _____________.
There are usually reflections in enclosed spaces and these reflections are perceived as _________________.
What will happen if there is a hole in an obstructing object?
The wave will continue on its path through the opening.
Maximum pressure to minimum and back to maximum constitutes one ___________.
What is the unit of one cycle per second called?
The letter k does what? For example, 1000 Hz can be written as __kHz or 250 Hz can be written as ___kHz
k denotes 1000; 1; .25
The number of cycles per second of a given tone.
The psychological perception of frequency; a higher frequency is perceived as having a higher ______.
The distance from baseline to peak is known as what?
The peak-to-peak amplitude of a sound wave is the _________ ___________ distance between its negative and positive peaks.
What is the unit of measurement of intensity that is used in audiometry and how is it measured and expressed?
decibel (dB); it is a relative unit of measure and is expressed in terms of various reference levels or anchor values
The different scales of decibels with different reference levels are known as __________ _________.
One unit encountered frequently in audiology is “SPL” which stands for ________ _________ ________.
sound pressure level
A sound pressure level meter measures the intensity of a sound in _________.
Decibel scales are not linear, they are _________.
When sound pressure levels are doubled, the number of decibels is actually increased by _____.
The minimum magnitude at which a stimulus can be detected, or the stimulus intensity at which detection occurs 50% of the time is called the ___________.
The threshold dB SPL, when someone has normal hearing, is different at different ___________. In other words, humans are more sensitive to some frequencies than they are to other frequencies
Audiometers have been set so that the number of dB SPLs coming out of the earphone that are needed for a person with average normal hearing to hear a tone always corresponds to _________ on the audiometer.
The number on the audiometer does not stand for dB SPL. What does it stand for?
It stands for dB HL (which stands for hearing level).
The standard range of normal hearing is: ___ dBHL to ___ dBHL at all frequencies.
0 dBHL to 20 dBHL
A term based on a specific individual's hearing sensitivity.
sensation level (dB SL)
intensity diminishes in proportion to the square of the distance traveled
Inverse Square Law
To indicate how much reverberation is in a room, it is discribed as the number of seconds is takes for a sound's intensity to be reduced by 60 dB.
According to signal detection theory, there is no absolute threshold because internal conditions in our bodies are constantly changing and also the listener is employing a “criterion” for deciding if he or she perceived the signal.
Signal Detection Theory
The amount of difference between the two stimuli that is called the _____________ ___________.
difference limen (DL)
What are the parameters used to describe an individual's hearing sensitivity?
Degree of hearing loss, configuration of hearing loss, type of hearing loss, and symmetry of hearing loss
The parameters degree of hearing loss, configuration of hearing loss, type of hearing loss, and symmetry of hearing loss depend on the concept of _______________.
Threshold of hearing
The intensity of a sound at which it can only be detected: "the minimum effective sound pressure level of an acoustic signal producing an auditory sensation for a specified number of trials" (American National Standards Institute (ANSI))
Threshold of audibility
_________ _____ is the result of converting the thresholds at the different frequencies into a straight line and labeling it zero dB __________ _____________.
Audiometric zero; hearing level (HL)
What causes the greater difficulty hearing speech?
The proces of the degree of hearing loss getting worse.
True/False: A 50 dB hearing loss is the same as a 50% hearing loss.
What group developed a formula that yields a description of hearing loss in terms of percent?
American Academy of Otolaryngology and the American Council of Otolaryngology (AAO/ACO)
“a disorder that involves the structures in the ear that are responsible for conducting sound to the cochlea.”
Conductive Hearing Loss
“is involved with both the cochlear function of sensory reception and the function of the auditory nerve.”
Sensorineural Hearing Loss
“both a conductive component and a sensorineural component.”
Mixed Hearing Loss
no “linkage to any underlying cause or organic pathology”