Psych Ch 4

  1. What is consciousness?
    Your awareness of everything that is going on around you and inside your own head at any given moment.
  2. What is waking consciousness?
    A state of consciousness in which a person's thoughts, feelings, and sensations are clear and organized and they feel alert.
  3. What is an altered state of consciousness?
    When there is a shift in the quality of pattern of your mental activity.

    Thoughts are fuzzy and disorganized, feeling less alert.  Or, feeling -more- alert, as under the influence of some drugs.
  4. What is "divided" altered state of cousciousness?
    Kind of when you are doing two things at once but are not wholly aware of each.

    Talking on cell phone and driving, you drive but are paying more attention to the phone call and so are not wholly aware of what's happening on the road.
  5. What part of the brain controls the sleep wake cycle?
  6. Which gland releases melatonin, what does melatonin do?
    The pineal gland releases melatonin, the hypothalmus controls when the pineal gland releases melatonin.  A structure deep within the hypothalmus calle the suprachiasmatic nucleus controls the release of melatonin.
  7. What is the suprachiasmatic nucleus?
    Also called the SCN - a structure within the hypothalmus which controls the release of melatonin.  It is sensitive to light
  8. What is melatonin?
    A hormone secreted by the suprachiasmatic nucleus within the hypothalmus that causes a person to feel sleepy as it accumulates.
  9. What are microsleeps?
    Brief periods of sleep lasting only seconds.  They can occur after being without sleep for too long, such as driving on a long trip or sitting in front of a computer for a long period.
  10. What is sleep deprivation?
    Lack of sleep, simply, not getting enough sleep.

    Symptoms include:

    • Slower reaction times
    • Decreased concentration
    • Decreased memory
    • Decreased critical thinking
    • Decreased ability to learn new material
    • Decreased immune system ( repair of cell damage happens during sleep )

    • Increase in irritability
    • More likely to be depressed.
  11. What is the adaptive theory of sleep?
    The theory that sleep is an adaptive behavior that develops evolutionarily.  Prey animals naturally sleep when they are less likely to be hunted, predator animals sleep whenever they feel like it because they are not hunted.
  12. What is the restorative theory of sleep?
    That sleep is necesarry for the body to repair and replenish itself.  Hormones and other chemicals used during the day are replenished during sleep, repair to cell damage occurs during sleep, most body growth occurs during the deepest stage of sleep.
  13. How much sleep do people need?
    • Teenagers - 7 - 9 hours / night
    • Some people - 4 - 5 hours / night
    • Long sleepers - more than 9 hours / night
  14. What does EEG stand for?
    Electroencephalograph - it records the brains electrical activity by placing sensors on a person's scalp.
  15. What are two main categories of sleep?
    • REM - Rapid Eye Movement
    • A relatively active type of sleep when most of a person's dreaming takes place.  Voluntary muscles are inhibited and a person in REM sleep cannot move around much, which is good otherwise they may try to act out their dreams.

    NREM (non-REM )sleep - A much deeper, restful sleep where a person's voluntary muscles are able to be used.
Card Set
Psych Ch 4
sleep, dreams, hypnosis, drugs...