A&P 2 Sensation

  1. what are the 2 types of awareness
    Conscious and unconscious
  2. sensory receptors respond to changes in what?
    thier enviroment (stimulus)
  3. Activation of sensory receptors results in what?
    graded potentials that trigger nerve impulses
  4. define sensation
    awarness of stimulus
  5. define perception
    interpretation of the meaning of the stimulus
  6. sensation and preception occur where?
    the brain
  7. receptors are classified based on what 3 things?
    • stimulus type
    • location
    • structural complexity
  8. what are the 5 stimulus "type" classifications?
    • mechanoreceptors
    • thermoreceptors
    • photoreceptors
    • chemoreceptors 
    • nocireceptors
  9. which receptor responds to touch,pressure, vibration?
  10. which receptor responds to changes in temprature?
  11. which receptors respond to light energy?
  12. Wich receptors respond the chemicals (like smell,taste and changes in blood chemistry)?
  13. Which receptors are sensitive to pain stimulus?
  14. what are the 3 stimulus "location" classifications?
    • Exteroreceptors
    • Interoceptors
    • proprioreceptors
  15. exterorecptors respond to stimulus occuring where?
    outside the body
  16. where are exteroreceptors found?
    • skin (touch, pressure, pain, temp)
    • most special senses organs
  17. what are the 2 classifications of receptors based on structural complexity?
    • complex receptors
    • simple receptors
  18. what does the complex receptors handle?
    special sense organs (taste, vision, hearing, equlibrium, smell)
  19. what does the simple receptors handle?
    • general senses
    • tactile sensations
    • encapsulated or unencapsulated (free) dendritic endings
  20. what 3 receptors are classified with unencapsulated dendritic endings
    • Thermoreceptors - cold (10-40 C) / heat (32-48 C)
    • Nocireceptors - respond to pinching, chemicals from damaged tissue, temps outside the range of thermoreceptors
    • Light touch receptors - tactile (merkel) discs
  21. which receptor is the only to be classified with encapsulated dendritic ending?
    mechanoreceptors - 
  22. what are the encapsulated dendritic ending mechanoreceptors? (6)
    • meissners (tactile) corpuscles
    • pacinian (lamenatted) corpuscles
    • ruffini endings
    • muscle spindles
    • golgi tendon organs
    • joint kinesthetic receptors
  23. meissners corpuscle is responsable for what ?
    descriminative touch (2 point descrimination) 
  24. is meissners corpuscle shallow or deep?
  25. what is Pecinian corpuscles resonsable for?
    deep pressure and vibration (think P for PRESSURE)
  26. is pecinian deep or shallow
  27. Ruffini Endings sense what?
    deep continous pressure
  28. muscle spindles respond to what
    muscle stretch
  29. what do golgi tendon organs sense 
    stretch in tendons
  30. what do joint kinetic receptors sense 
    stretch in articular capsuls
  31. what is the adaptation of sensory receptors
    adaptation is a change in sensitivity in the presence of a constant stimulus
  32. what happens in adaptation
    • receptor membranes beacome less responsive
    • receptor potentials decline or stop
  33. what does sensory adaptation allow the CNS to do?
    concentrate on the important stimuli and ignore noncritical ones to maintain homeostasis
  34. which receptors adapt to continuing stimuli
    light, touch, pressure, and smell
  35. which receptors do not adapt
    pain, joint, and muscle monitoring receptors
  36. which percentage of sensory receptors are found in the eye?
  37. most of the eye is protected by what ?
    cusion of fat and boney orbit
  38. what do the assesory structures of the eye do?
    protect the eye and aid in eye function
  39. what are the 5 accesory structures of the eye?
    • eyebrows - sweat
    • eyelids (palpebrae)
    • conjunctiva
    • lacrimal apparatus
    • extrinsic eye muscles
  40. eyebrows - location, function
    • overlie the superorbital margins 
    • funtions in shading the eyes and preventing persperation from reaching the eye
  41. eyelids are also known by what name
  42. what is the function of the eyelids
    protect the eye anteriorly
  43. what are the two parts of the eyelid and thier funtions 
    • palpebral fissure - seperate the eyelids
    • lacrimal - caruncle - the elevation at medial commisure contain oil and sweat glands
  44. eyelashes have nerve endings which initaite what 
  45. conjuctiva - 
    transparent membrane over eye
  46. what are the two types of conjunctiva
    • palpebral conjunctiva - lines the eyelid
    • bulbar conjunctiva - covers the whites of the eyes 
    • produces lubricating mucus secreation
  47. what makes up the lacrimal apperatus?
    Lacrimal gland and the ducts that connect to the nasal cavity 
  48. what are lacrimal secretions (tears) made of
    dilute saline solution containing mucus, antibodies, and lysozyme
  49. blinking spreads tears toward what structure?
    medial commisure
  50. tears drain into what
    nasolacrimal duct
  51. how many extrinsic eye muscles are there?
  52. where do the extrinsic eye muscles originate
    from the boney orbit
  53. what are the functions of the extrinsic eye muscles 
    • enable eye to follow an object 
    • maintain the shape of the eye
  54. extrinsic eye muscle are made up of what to types of muscles
    • oblique
    • rectus
  55. how many rectus muscles are there and where do they originate
    • 4
    • originate from the common tendonious ring
  56. how many oblique eye muscles are there and what is their function
    • move the eye in a verticle plane and rotate the eyeball
  57. name the 4 rectus muscles of the eye 
    • lateral 
    • medial
    • superior 
    • inferior
  58. what is the action of the lateral rectus muscle of the eye
    moves the eye laterally
  59. what is the action of the medail rectus muscle of the eye
    moves the eye medially
  60. what is the controlling cranial nerve of the lateral rectus muscle of the eye
    VI abducens
  61. what is the controlling cranial nerve of the medial rectus muscle of the eye
    III oculomotor
  62. what is the controlling cranial nerve of the superior rectus muscle of the eye?
    III oculomotor
  63. what is the controlling cranial nerve of the inferior rectus of the eye?
    III oculomotor
  64. what is the controlling cranial nerve of the inferior oblique muscle of the eye?
    III oculomotor
  65. what is the controlling cranial nerve of the superior oblique muscle of the eye?
    IV trochlear
  66. whats another name for a layer in the eye
  67. the wall of the eyeball contains 3 layers, name them.
    • fiberous
    • vascular
    • sensory
  68. the internal cavity of the eye is filled with fluid called...
  69. the lens seperates the internal cavity of the eye into what to cavities or chambers
    • anterior chamber
    • posterioir chamber
  70. what is the outermost layer of the eye?
  71. the fiberous layer consists of ....
    dense avascular connective tissue 
  72. what are the two regions of the fiberous layer 
    • sclera
    • cornea
  73. what is the sclera and its functions
    • opaque posterior region
    • protects the eye shape
    • anchors extrinsic eye muscles
  74. what is the cornea and what are its functions
    • transparent anterior 1/6 of fiberous layer
    • bends light as it enters the eye
    • numerous pain receptors contribute to blinking and tearing reflexes
  75. what are the 3 parts of the vascular layer or tunic of the eye
    • choroid region
    • ciliary body
    • iris
  76. what is the function of the choroid region
    supplies blood to all layers of the eyeball
  77. what is the ciliary body
    ring of tissue surrounding the lens
  78. ciliary body is made up of two structures name them 
    • smooth muscle bundles (ciliary muscles) 
    • ciliary zonules (suspensory ligaments) 
  79. what is the function of the smooth muscle bundles of the ciliary body?
    controls lens shape
  80. what is the function of the ciliary zonules
    holds lens in position
  81. which part of the is the iris
    colored part
  82. what is the central opening of the iris that controls the amount of light that enters the eye called?>
  83. what are the 2 muscles that make up the iris and control the size of the pupil
    • sphincter pupallae 
    • dilator pupallae
  84. of the two muscles in the iris which would be sympathetic and which would be parasympathetic
    • sphincter - parasympathetic
    • dilator - sympathetic
  85. the retina is made up of
    delicate two layer membrane
  86. what are the 2 layers of the retina
    • pigmented layer
    • neural layer
  87. what is the function of the pigmented layer of the retina
    • absorbes light and prevents its scattering 
    • absorbs vitamen A
  88. what is the functions of the neural layer of the retina
    its the photoreceptor - transduces light energy
  89. why is the optic disc a blind spot?
    there are no photorecptors there
  90. ganglion cell axons of the the retina are located where in the retina
    run along the innersurface of the retina 
  91. what do the ganglion cell axons of the retina leave the eye as?
    the optic nerve
  92. what is the optic disc
    site where optic nerve leaves the eye
  93. what are the 2 types of photoreceptors 
    • rods
    • cones
  94. what condition do rods preform in and what type of vision do they provide
    • operate in dim light
    • provide indistinct, fuzzy, non color peripheral vision
  95. what conditions do cones operate in and what typoe of vision do they provide
    • operate in bright light 
    • provide high acuity color vision
  96. what does the posterior segment of the eye contain
    vitreous humor
  97. what are the functions of the vitreous humor
    • transmit light
    • support the posterior surface of the lens
    • hold the neural retina firmly against the pigmented layer
    • contributes to interoccular pressure
  98. anterior segment consists of what two segments 
    • anterior chamber
    • posterior chamber
  99. what type of "humor" does the anterior segment hold
    aqueous humor
  100. what are the properties of the lens
    • biconvex
    • transparent
    • flexible
    • elastic
    • avascular
  101. what does the lens allow?
    precise focusing of light on the retina
  102. what transparent protein are lens fibers filled with 
  103. what happens to the lens with age?
    becomes denser, more convex, and less elestic
  104. what is the pathway of light entering the eye?
    • cornea
    • aqueous humor
    • lens
    • vitreous humor
    • neural layer of retina
    • photoreceptors
  105. the outer layer of both rods and cones contain visual pigments. what is a visual pigment?
    molecules that change shape as they absorb light 
  106. what are the chemical senses 
    taste and smell
  107. what is the origin of smell
    olfsactory epithelium in the roof of the nasal cavity 
  108. what are olfactory receptor cells
    bipolor neurons with radiating olfasctory cilia
  109. what are the receptor organs of taste and where are they found
    • taste buds
    • on toungue
  110. what are the 5 primary taste sensations
    • salty
    • sweet
    • sour
    • bitter
    • umami
  111. what is the gustatory pathway
    • CN's VII and IX carry impulses from taste buds to solitary nucleus of the medulla
    • impulses then travel to the thalamus from there fibers branch to the; gustatory cortex in the insula and then hypothalamus and limbic system
  112. what are the influence of other sensations on taste?
    • taste is 80% smell
    • thermoreceptors, mechanoreceptors, nocirecptors in mouth influence taste 
    • temp and texture enhance or detract from taste
Card Set
A&P 2 Sensation
a&p sensation