1. melena
    • black tarry stool from bleeding in UGI
    • **req at least 60 ml and 10-14 hours**
  2. gross section turns yellow after formalin fixation
    • intestinal carcinoid
    • SI>LI
  3. flushing face, HTN, diarrhea
    think carcinoid (NE tumor) secreting high levels of hormones like 5-HT
  4. gallons of mucin in the peritoneal cavity (pseudomyxoma peritonei), with epithelial cells in the mucin
    appendiceal mucinous cystadenocarcinoma
  5. UR abdominal pain
    • biliary tract disease
    • perforated peptic ulcer
  6. UL abdominal pain
    gastric and splenic disorders
  7. LR abdominal pain
    appendicitis, chrons disease, meckels diverticulum
  8. LL abdominal pain
    diverticular disease
  9. most common place for anal fissures
    posterior midline
  10. life threatening colorectal bleeding dx
    mesenteric angiography
  11. "apple core" appearance on barium enema
    colon cancer
  12. mild increase in liver ez (low hundreds)
    • chronic viral hep
    • acute alcoholic hep
  13. moderate increase in liver ez (high hundreds to thousands)
    acute viral hep
  14. severe increase in hepatic ez (>10,000)
    • hepatic necrosis
    • (ischemia/trauma/APAP)
  15. indicates high infectivity of HBV
    HBeAg- present for 6 wks to 3 months
  16. hepatitis with steatosis and lymphoid aggregates
  17. ground glass hepatocyte
  18. non smoker with emphysema and liver disease
    A1AT deficiency
  19. PAS+ globules on liver biopsy
    A1AT deficiency
  20. anti mitochondrial Ig
    primary biliary cirrhosis
  21. florid duct infiltrate
    primary biliary cirrhosis
  22. central scar on liver mass
    focal nodular hyperplasia- benign
  23. atypical hepatocytes in trabecular or pseudoglandular pattern
    hepatocellular carcinoma
  24. large eosinophilic hepatocytes with in bands of collagen
    fibrolamellar viarient of HCC
  25. anastamosing vascular pattern
    hepatic angiosarcoma
  26. exposure to vinyl chloride, arsenic and thorotrast
    hepatic angiosarcoma
  27. MCC cirrhosis in US
    HCV, also the MCC of chronic viral hepatitis
  28. balooning degeneration in hepatocytes
    acute hepatitis
  29. periumbilical darkening on a neonate with poor feeding and bilious vomitting
    necrotizing enterocolitis
  30. gas shadow within the wall of the intestine (pneumotosis intestinalis)
    necrotizing enterocolitis
  31. colicky abdominal pain followed by vomitting
    consider intussuseption
  32. episodes of screaming and drawing the legs up
  33. scalloping of intestinal mucosal folds
    celiac dz
  34. prolamin
    the protein which produces the allergy in celiac dz (present in gliadins and glutens
  35. starry sky macrophages
    Burkitts lymphoma
  36. tx of burkitts lymphoma
    high dose cyclophosphamide
  37. meconium ileus
    comlication of CF, a large obstruction in bowel, treated by hyperosmolar gastrografin enema
  38. freely anastamosing vascular pattern
    angiosarcoma of the liver
  39. ballooning degeneration (swollen hepatocytes)
    acute viral hepatitis
  40. bloody diarrhea with parasite infection
    Entamoeba histolytica
  41. concentric onion skin fibrosis on liver biopsy
    primary sclerosing cholangitis
  42. segmental beaded appearance of ducts on imaging
    primary sclerosing cholangitis
  43. tumor with mucnous columnar epithelium with ovarian stroma and no connection to major pancreatic ducts
    • mucinous cystic tumor of the pancreas
    • may harbor mucinous cystadenocarcinoma (requires resection)
  44. precursor lesion to pancreatic adenocarcinoma
    intraductal papillary neoplasm
  45. irregular bile ducts
    bile duct hamartoma
  46. central scar
    focal nodular hyperplasia of liver
  47. MC benign liver tumor
    hepatic hemangiomal (cavernous angioma)
  48. liver tumor associated with OC use
    hepatic adenoma- may regress on cessation of OC
  49. encapsulated mass that is a different color from the rest of the liver
    hepatic adenoma
  50. large eosinophilic hepatocytes within bands of collagen
    fibrolamellar variant of HCC
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