SIT Exam

  1. Percolation Test
    Ill identify an acceptable on-site sewage disposal system. Necessary due to wide variation of soils and their ability to absorb water.
  2. septic tank minimum requirements
    • 1000 gallons;
    • minimum liquid depth of 3ft;
    • maximum liquid depth: 6 1/2ft;
    • minimum air space of eight inches in tank;
    • all require removable manhole cover or 24-inch manhole opening;
    • walls 2-3.5 depending on which
  3. Lift Station
    • Shall be located downstream of septic tank;
    • designed to pump sewage/particles/solids;
    • manhole opening must be at least 2 inches above ground and have a manhole opening of 24 inches;
    • discharge line of 1-1/4 to 1-1/2 inches in diameter;
    • pump compartment minimum 300 gallons;
    • must have air gap to prevent back siphoning.
  4. ? Septic tank must have minimum 3-4 lateral lines (dumping lines)
    ?MAY have up to 6
  5. Subsurface absorption field - use lots
    Must be free of surface water/runoff. Any of this must be diverted away. Minimum area is 10ft^2. All wastewater including laundry and kitchen waste must be connected.
  6. Level Lots
    Unless a mechanical lift pump is used, all perforated pipe shall be located at at least 6 in. below liquid level of septic tank.

    All sewer drains and stub outs shall be installed so that it is no deeper than 30in. below natural ground level for lateral field area.
  7. Sloping Lots
    retention structures shall be used.  Inlets and outlets of retention structure must be sealed.  Top of pipe in lateral line at least 10 inches below the outlet of septic tank.
  8. Lagoon
    must be built if perc test states a septic tank is not suitable. Common in the country where the soil is clay-like.
  9. Perc test procedure
    At least three tests to define absorption field.

    A failing test is a drop of less than 1 inch in 10 minutes.

    Test holes 4-12 inches in diameter 24-30 inches deep.

    Holes placed at approximate corners of isosceles triangle having two sides 50x75ft.

    Ex: drop of 3 inches in 60 minutes = 20 minutes per inch.

    Soaking is used to simulate conditions during the wet season.

    Swelling is intrusion of water into soil particles. Slow process - especially in clay.
  10. Perc test interpretation
    If all three test sites have a drop of 1 inch or more in 60 minutes.

    Add sum of three depths together and divide by sum of three times to get average percolation rate. Use table to determine length of lateral lines.

    If any two tests are more than 15 minutes apart; rate of slower is used.

    If any one test fails; a suitable absorption field has NOT been found.
  11. Noise pollution
    unwanted or offensive sounds that unreasonably intrude into our daily activities.
  12. Factors for increasing noise pollution:
    • Increasing population
    • increasing volume of road, rail, and air traffic
  13. Deafness
    Prolonged exposure to noise levels at or above 80dB(A)
  14. Average traffice noise:
  15. Noise and land zoning:
    Separation of activities which are incompatible due to noise levels. For example: heavy industry will be separated from residential areas by light industry, recreational facilities, or retail.
  16. Noise Control Act 1975

    Noise Control Regulation 1995
    Controls noise on building alarms; night-time control of noise sources: power tools, lawn mowers, AC, music. Warnings valid for 28 days; horns, refrigeration units.
  17. Indoor Air Pollutants
    Oil, gas, kerosene, coal, cood, tobacco, abestos, personal care items, heating and cooling devices, hudifiers, radon, pesticides, outdoor air pollution
  18. Ventilation
    If too little outdoor air enters a home, pollutants can accumulate to levels that pose health and comfort problems.
  19. Ozone
    O3 - should occur 10-30 miles above ground level. Ground level ozone is bad.

    Ground level is created by a reaction between oxides and nitrogen (NOx) and volatile organic compounds (VOC). NOx and VOC main source is from emissions

    VOC + NOx + Heat + Sunlight = Ozone

    Peak is summertime when hot and dry

    Can be carried hundreds of miles

    Ground level ozone affects health and plants/ecosystem damage
  20. Clean Air Act set the National Ambient Air Quality Standards for six principal pollutants in ppm:
    • Carbon Monoxide
    • Lead
    • Nitrogen Dioxide
    • Particulate Matter (10) dust, soot, smoke
    • Particulate Matter (2.5) burned gases
    • Ozone
    • Sulfur Oxides
  21. Sulfur Dioxide SO2
    65% from electric utilities (coal), industry

    Contributes to acid rain
  22. Carbon Monoxide (CO)
    Colorless, odorless gas  formed when carbon fuel isn't burned completely.

    Motor vehicle ehaust = 56%
  23. Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) 1980
    Created a tax on chemical and petroleum industries -- over 5 yrs, $1.6 billion collected and put into a trust fund for cleaning up abandoned or uncontrolled hazardous waste sites

    • Authorizes two kinds of responses:
    • Short term removals for threatened releases requiring prompt response
    • Long term remedial for situations that are not immedately life threatening

    Amended by Superfun Amendments and Reauthorization Act (SARA) in Oct 1986 - stressed permanent solutions, focus on human health, new enforcement authorities and tools, increased size of trust from 1.6 to $8.5 billion
  24. PM10
    Can't be exceeded more than once per year

    Annual arithmetic mean PM10 can't exceed 50ug/m^3

    3 year average PM2.5 can't exceed 15ug/m^3

    98th percentile of 24hr average  can't exceed 64ug/m^3

    3 year average of 4th highest daily maximum 8-hour average ozone concentrations  must not exceed .08ppm.
  25. Winterizing and securing outdoor pools
    All gates shall be locked. All outdoor pools should be secure in one of the three ways:

    • 1. Draining
    • 2.not drained or covered -- turbidity controlled to be able to see main drain from pool deck. Maintain disinfectant levels.
    • 3. Covering must be able to support 1000lbs. with no water on top. If water is left in the pool, it should be below skimmers (18-24"). Lights should be taped OFF.
  26. Rabies:
    • Humans: 10-14 days
    • Cats & dogs: 3-5 days
    • Bats: 2 weeks
  27. Lodging
    4 or more rooms OFFERED on a daily basis

    ice machines must eliminate human contact
  28. Primary sewage treatment
    removes 40% suspended solids and 30-40% of BOD

    • screening large objects
    • grit chamber
    • sedimentation tank
  29. Secondary sewage treatment
    removes 85% BOD

    activated sludge - microorganisms to break down organic material with aeration and agitation

    Trickling filters - beds of coarse media (often stones or plastic 3-10ft deep)

    Lagoons - slow and cheap. Rely on interaction of sunlight, algae, microorganisms, and oxygen
  30. aeration
    exposing to circulating air; adds oxygen to wastewater and allows other gases trapped in the wastewater to escape (first step in secondary treatment via activated sludge).
  31. biochemical oxygen demand (BOD)
    Lab measurement of wastewater that is one of the main indicators of the quantity of pollutants present; parameter used to measure the amount of oxygen that will be consumed by microorganisms.
  32. biosolids
    Sludge that is intended for beneficial use (fertilizer, soil amendment)
  33. effluent
    treated wastewater from a lagoon, tank, treatment plant, etc.
  34. Total suspended solids (TSS)
    Lab measurement of the quantity of suspended solids present in wastewater that is one of the main indicators of the quantity of pollutants present.
  35. Water Quality
    50 gallons per person per day minimum

    Chlorinated to 50-100ppm

    100 gallon well - use 14-28 ounces cleach; let sit overnight, flush, wait a week and test.
  36. safe water distance from pollution
    • 50 uphill from pollution
    • 75 same elevation
    • 100 downhill from pollution

    private wells must be at least 10ft below ground surface

    needs watertight casing; should extend to at least 8" above ground
  37. Lot size
    minimum 1 acre
  38. Absorption trenches
    18-30" deep

    24" wide
  39. Formulas & Conversions
    volume cylinder = pi x h x r^2

    1ft^3 = 7.48gallons

    Flow  = 8.34mg/l

    1gal water = 8.34lbs.
  40. Elevation of pump above source of supply cannot exceed _____.
  41. Dissolved oxygen is highest in a lake at:
    3pm or later, had all day to synthesize
  42. Common settling times in wastewater treatment plants
    2-4 hrs.
  43. Rock in most trickling filters is placed___
    directly on the ground
  44. parshall flume
    used to measure flow of wastewater
  45. exhaust from a chlorinator room should be taken from
    floor level
  46. chlroine residual may be determined using reagent
  47. Dresser and victaulic couplings are commonly used with _____ piping.
    cast iron
  48. Loading rate, solids concentration, DO are used in _____.
    activated sludge process
  49. amperometric titrater is used to measure ___
    chlorine residual
  50. Adding sodium thiosulfate is to:
    remove any residual chlorine
  51. Waste retention tank on a mobile food prep unit must be___
    at least 15% larger than potable water system
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SIT Exam
Sit Exam