Psych Test 1

  1. States of Consciousness
    in addition to normal, waking awareness, consciousness comes to us in altered states, including day-dreaming, sleeping, meditatingm and drug-induced hallucinating
  2. Consciousness
    our awareness of our-selves and our environment
  3. congitive neuroscience
    the interdisciplinary studt of the brain activity liked with cognition (including perception, thinking, memory, and language)
  4. Dual Processing
    the principle that infomation is often siultaneously processed on separate conscious and unconscious tracks
  5. selective attention
    the focusing of conscious awareness on a particular stimulus
  6. Inattentional blindness
    failing to see visible objects when our attention is directed elsewhere
  7. change blindness
    failing to notice changes in the environment
  8. Circadian Rhythm
    the biological clock; regular bodily rythms (for example, of temperature and wakefulness) that occur on a 24-hour cycle
  9. REM sleep
    rapid eye movement sleep, a recurring sleep stage during which vivid dreams commonly occur. Also known as paradoxical sleep, because the muscles are relaxed (except for minor twitches) but other body systems are active
  10. Alpha Waves
    the relatively slow brain waves of a relaxed, awake state
  11. sleep
    periodic, natural, reversible loss of consciousness--as distinct from unconsciousness resulting from a coma, general anesthesia, or hibernation
  12. Hallucinations
    falso sensory experiences, such as seeing something in the absence of an external visual stimulus
  13. delta waves
    the large, slow brain waves associated with deep sleep
  14. Insomnia
    recurring problems in falling or staying asleep
  15. Narcolepsy
    a sleep disorder characterized by uncontrollable sleep attacks. The sufferer may laps directly into REM sleep, often at inopportune times
  16. Sleep apnea
    a sleep disorder characterized by temporary cessations of breathing during sleep and repeated momentary awakenings
  17. Night terrors
    a sleep disorder characterized by high arousal and an appearance of being terrified; unlike nightmares, night terrors occur during stage 4 sleep, within two or three hours of falling asleep, and are seldom remembered
  18. Dream
    a sequence of images, emotions, and thoughts passing through a sleeping person's mind. Dreamss are notable for their hallucinatory imagery, discontinuities, and incogruities, and for the dreamer's delusional acceptance of the content and later difficulties remembering
  19. Manifest content
    according to Freud, the remembered story line of a dream (as distinct from its latent, of hidden, content)
  20. Latent Content
    according to Freud, the underlying meaning of a dream (as distinct from its manifest content)
  21. REM rebound
    the tendency for REM sleep to increase following REM sleep deprivation (created by repeated awakenings during REM sleep)
  22. Hypnosis
    a social interaction in which ine person (the hypnotist) suggests to another (the subject) that certain perceptions, feelings, thoughts, or behaviours will spontaneously occur
  23. Posthypnotic suggestion
    a suggestion, made during a hypnosis session, to be carried out after the subject is no longer hypnotized; used by some clinicians to help control undesired syptoms and behaiours
  24. Dissociation
    a split consciousness which allows some thoughts and behaviours to occur simultaneously with others
  25. Psychoactive drug
    a chemical substance that alters perceptions and moods
  26. Tolerance
    the diminishing effect with regular use of the same dose of a drug, requiring the user to take larger and larger doses before experiencing the drug's effect
  27. Withdrawal
    the discomfort and distress that follow discontinuing the use of an addictive drug
  28. Physical dependence
    a physiological need for a drug, marked by unpleasant withdrawal symptoms when the drug is discontinued
  29. Psychological dependence
    a psychological need to use a drug, such as to relieve negative emotions
  30. Addiction
    compulsive drug craving and use, despite adverse consequences
  31. Depressants
    drugs (such as alchohol, barbituratesm and opiates) that reduce neural activity and slow body functions
  32. Barbiturates
    drugs that depress the activity of the central nervous system, reducing anxiety but impairing memory and judgement
  33. Opiates
    Opium and its derivatives such as morphine and heroin; they depress neural activity, temporarily lessening pain and anxiety
  34. Stimulants
    drugs (such as caffeine, nicotine, and the more powerful amphetamines, cocaine, and Ecstasy) that excite the neural activity and speed up body functions
  35. Amphetamines
    drugs that stimulate neural activity, causing speeded-up body functions and associated energy and mood changes
  36. Methamphetamine
    a powerfully addictive drug that stimulates the central nervous system, with speeded-up body functions and associated energy and mood changes; over time, appears to reduce baseline dopamine levels
  37. Ecstasy (MDMA)
    a synthetic stimulant and mild hallucinogen. Produces euphoria and social intimacy, but with short-term health risks and long-term harm to serotonin-producing neurons and to mood and cognition
  38. Hallucinogens
    psychedelic (mind manifesting) drugs, such as LSD, that distort percpetions and evoke sensory images in the absense of sensory input
  39. LSD
    a powerful hallucinogenic drug; also known as acid (lysergic acid diethylamide)
  40. THC
    the major active ingredient in marijuana; triggers a variety of effects, including mild hallucinations
  41. Near-Death Experience
    a altered state of consciousness reported after a close brush with death (such as through cardiac arrest); often similar ti drug induced hallucinations
Card Set
Psych Test 1
First test: chapters 3,4,6