2o, 3o, and 4o structure. (1o structure remains intact)
What is denaturation
the disruption of disulfide bonds, hydrogen bonds, and other weak interactions, having an unfolded protein leaving the primary structure intact.
Denatured proteins always retain what structure
their primary structure
Can a protein partially re-fold onto something that doesn't resemble its starting material.
Protein albumin found in egg whites can be denatured by heat or
mechanical action (whipping). Denaturation changes the properties of the protein.
Types of protein
What is Structural proteins function
Form structural framework of various parts of the body.
Example: collagen in bone and other connective tissues, and keratin in skin, hair, and fingernails.
What is Regulatory protein function
Function as hormones that regulate various physiological processes; control growth and development; as neurotransmitters, mediate responses of the nervous system.
Example: the hormone onsulin, which regulates blood gucose level, and a neurotransmitter known as substance P, which mediates sensation of pain in the nervous system.
What is contractile protein function
Allow shortening of muscle cells, which produces movement.
What is immunological protein function
Aid responses that protect body against foreign substances and invading pathogens.
Example: antibodies and interleukins.
What is transport protein function
Carry vital substances throughout the body.
Example: hemoglobin, which transports most oxygen and some carbon dioxide in the blood.
What is Catalytic protein function
Act as enzymes that regulate biochemical reactions.
Examples: salivary amylase, sucrase, and ATPase.
Define an enzyme
are proteins that speed up (catalyze) chemical reactions.
A typical human cell carries out tens of thousands of metabolic processes. Each of these reactions is speeded along by an
enzyme of one sory or another
Enzymes don't change the overall energy that comes out of the reaction. They change
activation energy, but not the overall energy profile.
Enzymes are catalysts.
Catalysts make reactions go faster but are not consumed.
Enzymes bring together the reaction products.
Molecules fit into a pocket formed by the
Substrate name + -ase =