Automatic patterned response to a stimulus
What are the classes of reflexes are associated with level of neural processing?
What are the reflex classes associated with efferent division controlling effector?
What reflex classes are associated with developmental patterns?
What reflex classes are associated with the number of synapses in the pathway?
What is a reflex arc?
Neural pathway for a reflex
What are the steps of a reflex arc starting with a stimulus?
- Sensory receptor
- Afferent neuron
- Integration center (CNS)
- Efferent neuron
- Effector organ
What are the different synaptic arcs called?
- Single-cell connectin
- Monosynaptic reflex arc
- Polysynaptic reflex arc
What is the name of pain receptors?
What is an example of monosynaptic reflex?
What is an example of a polysynaptic reflex arc?
Pupillary light reflex
What reflexes are involved in pupillary light reflex?
What is the pupillary light relfex arc?
- Afferent Neurons
- Midbrain Nuclei
- Efferent Neurons
What are the steps to the production of voluntary movements?
What are the 3 inputs to motor neurons?
- Afferents (reflexes)
- Pyramidal tract neurons
- Extrapyramidal tract neurons
What mvmts is the pyramidal tract responsible for?
Fine control of voluntary mvmt of distal extremities
Where does the pyramidal tract originate?
Primary motor cortex of the brain
What are the extrapyramidal tracts?
All motor pathways outside of the pyramidal tracts
What are extrapyramidal tracts responsible for?
Supportive voluntary mvmt of proximal extremities (upper parts of limbs)
How is posture controlled?
Brainstem exerts involuntary control, sends info to the reticular formaion, vestibular nuclei, and red nuclei
Why is the cerebellum critical to motor coordination?
- Feedback control of motor function
- Contributes to muscle tone
- Stores programs
What role to the basal nuclei play in motor control?
- Feeback control - voluntary mvmts
- Select purposeful over unwanted mvmts
What controls sleep-wake cycles?
- ARAS - Ascending reticular activating system
- Awakens cortex
- Is part of reticular formation, projections to thalamus, hypothalamus, forebrain
What sleep-wake neurotransmitters are involved in an awake state?
- Acetylcholine - ARAS
- Norepinephrine/dopamine - ARAS
What sleep-wake neurotransmitters are involved in sleep state?
- Adenosine - SWS
- Acetylcholine - REM
What CNS structures are involved in emotions?
- Amygdala - fear, anxiety
- Hypothalamus - anger, aggression
- Cerebral Cortex
- Limbic System
What is procedural memory?
- Automatic response not requiring conscious effort
- Learned motor skills/behaviours
- Cerebellum involved
What is declarative memory?
- Learned facts, events, experiences
- Requires conscious effort for recall
- Hippocampus involved
What is plasticity in the nervous system?
- Development of new synapses
- Long-term modulation of existing synapses
- Involved in learning and memory