1. Is operational definition testworthy
    • ex. you can use a measurement of your cake-baking skill as an operational definition of you intelligence. clearly this is not so. 
    • This definition lacks reliability and validity
  2. Face validity
    whether something looks valid on the surface
  3. the three sta tistical elements of testing
    • Really Very Nasty
    • R= Reliability
    • V= Validity
    • N= Norms
  4. Norms
    gives you a reference point
  5. Validity
    establishes that our measurement measures what its supposed to measure
  6. Reliability
    • establishes that our measurement is stable or consistent (reliable)
    • the correlation betwee two measurements of the same thing
    • 1 means perfect reliability
    • we want them to be high .6-.8
  7. Operational definition
    turns our abstract contruct into something we can measure
  8. abstract construct
    the thing that we are really interested in but we cant measure it directly
  9. why are longer test more reliable
    • each person answers questions in a variety of ways. if you only ask one quesrion, you might not get a true picture of that person.
    • each item test what you want it to and plus some other nonsense
    • when you average them the nonsense gets averaged out leaving only the construct of interest. 
  10. two kinds of reliability
    • intrarater reliability: test the same person more than once
    • interrater reliability: test different people
  11. Intrarater reliability
    • retest the person on different occasions
    • problems: memory effects and practice effects
    • internal consistency: this is coceptually different, because we are not retesting in any way
  12. Internal consistency
    • unidimensionality (single dimension) 
    • only makes sense when all of the items are supposed to be measuring the same thing.
  13. split-half reliability
    • aplit the test in hald, and correlate one half with the other half
    • this is like treating one test as two
    • it divides the test in half, which reduces the reliability
    • problems: you could get many different scores, depending on how you split it
  14. Cronbach's Alpha
    • correlate each item on the test with the total test score
    • average them
    • there is only one
    • Alpha is the sign you will always see in reliabilty
  15. Kuder-Richardson
    like alpha but only applies to a test where there are right and wrong answers
  16. spearman-brown reliability
    an adjustment formula, to increase the reliability back to what it would be for the full-length test
  17. Interrater reliability
    • only applies when we expect people to agree with each other
    • correlate the judges with each other
    • ex. raters of videotapes
    • doesnt apply to paper and pencil (objective) tests, but does apply where tests have subjective elements, such as projective tests
Card Set
chp 3.4