Lab A&P II: Respiratory Anatomy

  1. What is the function of epithelial tissue?
    It covers/lines
  2. Name this tissue, its function, and where it can be found
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    Simple Squamous Epithelium

    Function: moist, protective, transport

    Found in: serous tissue, ALVEOLI, arteries/veins/capillary linings, parietal and visceral linings
  3. Name this tissue, its function, and where it can be found
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    Stratified Squamous Epithelium

    Function: moist, protective, transports

    Found in: mouth, esophogus, skin, openings to the enviornment (nostrils/nares*)
  4. Name this tissue, its function, and where it can be found
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    • Pseudostratified Columnar (ciliated with goblet cells)
    • *all different heights, but all attach to the basement membrane

    Functions: secrete or absorb

    Found in: ciliated with goblets- entire upper respiratory tract including trachea and bronchi; nasal epithelium

    *after bronchi, there it is no longer ciliated and may become cuboidal in bronchioles
  5. Name this tissue, its function, and where it can be found
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    Simple Columnar Epithelium with goblet cells

    Goblet cells: secrete mucus

    Found in: entire digestive tract from stomache to anal region
  6. Name this tissue, its function, and where it can be found
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    Simple Cuboidal Epithelium

    function: secretion and absorption

    Found in: ducts (bile), kidney tubules, MAY LINE THE BRONCHIOLES
  7. Describe the Path air takes begining with the nostrils
    Nares--> Nasal Cavity (Nasal Conchae)-->Pharynx (Nasopharynx, Oropharynx, Laryngopharynx)-->Larynx-->Glottis-->Trachea-->Primary Bronchi-->20-23 divisions of bronchi-->bronchioles-->alveolar ducts-->alveoli
  8. Describe the cartilages and the vocal cords of the larynx
    • 8 Hyaline Cartilages
    • 1 Elastic - Epiglottis (guardian of the airway)

    • 2 sets of vocal cords
    • Superior: vestibular folds, false vocal cords
    • Inferior: true vocal cords vibrate with expelled air for speech
    • *attached posterolaterally by small triangular arytenoid cartilages*

    *space between VC called the glottis

    * there is also hyaline cartilager in the nasal septum
  9. describe the four steps in respiration
    1. Pulmonary Ventilation: breathing/O2 and CO2 in and out of lungs

    2. External Respiration: gas exchange between blood and lungs, O2 loading and CO2 unloading

    3. Transport: O2 between lungs and tissues with blood as the vehicle

    4. Internal Respiration: exchange of gas between blood and tissue cells (O2 unloading, CO2 loading)
  10. what is the major role of the respiratory system?
    to supply the body with oxygen and dispose of carbon dioxide
  11. The upper respiratory system is composed of...
    the nose, pharynx, and larynx
  12. How does the help the respiratory system?
    The nasal conchae increase air turbulence, moisten, and warm air.  The air is filtered through the nasal mucosa
  13. Decribe the three portions of the pharynx
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    • 1. Nasopharynx: above the soft palate, AIR PASSAGE. Pharyngeal tonsils posterior superiorly.  Auditory tubes with tubal tonsils surrounding opening

    2. Oropharynx: from the soft palate to the inferior part of epiglottis, PASSAGE FOR FOOD AND AIR, lateral walls are the palatine tonsils and the lingual tonsils cover the base of the tongue

    3. Laryngopharynx: PASSAGE FOR FOOD AND AIR, directly posterior to the upright epiglottis to the larynx where the channels split between respiratory and digestive
  14. Label the Larynx
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    • hyoid bone, thyroid cartilage, adams apple/laryngeal prominence, epiglottis, arytenoid cartilage, cricoid cartilage, tracheal cartilages, vestibular fold/false VC, Vocal fold/true VC
    • *trachealis muscle in back as well as tracheal membrane
  15. what keeps the primary bronchi open?
    The carina (like a bikini bottom at the end of trachea)
  16. What attaches to the lungs at an ident? What is this indent called?
    Called the Hilum

    • The ROOT attaches there
    • 1. Pulomary arteries and veins
    • 2. Primary Bronchi
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  17. Describe the difference between the right and left primary bronchi
    • Right: wider, shorter, more vertical
    • *foreign objects tend to get stuck on this side
  18. What is the function of the uncomplete "C" rings of tracheal cartilage?
    Incomplete part allows esophogus to expand when swallowing

    solid portions reinforce the tracheal walls to keep airways open reguardless of pressure changes while breathing
  19. Describe the relationship between terminal and respiratory bronchioles.  What makes bronchioles different than bronchi other than their size?
    Terminal bronchioles lead to respiratory bronchioles that turn into alveolar ducts, then alveolar sacs, and aleveoli

    bronchioles do not have hyaline cartilage plates like bronchi, but smooth muscle instead.  this allows resistance if necessary (or asthma)

    the continous branching is called the respiratory tree
  20. Name this slide, its parts, and its functions
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    Lung tissue. Functions in gas exchange

    • 1. Terminal Bronchiole
    • 2. Respiratory Bronchiole
    • 3. Alveolar Duct
    • 4. End of alveolar duct
    • 5. Alveolar Sac
    • 6. Alveoli
  21. What are the respiratory zone structures?
    collectively: the alveolar sacs, the alveolar ducts, and the respiratory bronchioles 

    *they are called this because they are the site of gas exchange. all other passageways are called the conducting zone structures(anatomical dead space)*
  22. Whats the difference between the right and left lobes of the lungs?
    The right lung has 3 lobes while the left has 2

    the right lung is larger

    left lung has the cardiac notch where heart sits in mediastinum
  23. What encloses the lungs?
    A double layered sac called the PLEURA

    Parietal pleura: outer layer attached to diaphram lines cavity

    Visceral pleura: inner layer covering lungs

    Separated by the pleural cavity: holds lungs to thorax and lessens friction during breathing by serous fluid
  24. What structural characteristics make alveoli the perfect place for gas exchange?
    The large surface area of THIN SIMPLE SQUAMOUS CELL MEMBRANE surrounded by capillaries
  25. What is the respiratory membrane?
    The air blood barrier 

    • alveolar and capillary walls and their fused basal laminae
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  26. Name this tissue and its parts
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    • Bronchiole
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  27. Name this tissue and its parts
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    • Larynx marked by hyaline cartilage (bottom)
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  28. Name this tissue and its parts
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  29. Name this tissue and its parts
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    • Trachea ciliated pseudostratified columnar with goblet cells
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  30. What is the epiglottis made of?
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Card Set
Lab A&P II: Respiratory Anatomy
A&P II Lab respiratory system, slides, epithelial tissue, nasal, laryngeal, brochi, bronchioles, epiglottis, alveoli, respiration, labeling