1. Operational definition
    a concrete operation (recipe) that results in a number or catergorization
  2. Abstract construct
    • eg. alcoholism
    • promiscuity
    • self-esteem
    • shyness 
    • iq
  3. Test in operational definition
    • a test or instrument provides an operational definition of whatever is being tested
    • when intelligence, introversion, etc the test puts a number to this
  4. concrete job performance
    these prerformances are not particularly abstract, as they will be concretely measured or observed in the future
  5. two ways of measuring behavior
    • direct observation
    • ask questions (indirect observation)
    • both have problems
  6. problems with direct observation
    • not efficient: expensive and time consuming
    • Reactivity: you change your behavior because you know someone is watching you
    • Hawthrone effect and halo effect
  7. Hawthrone effect 
    a form of reactivity where people change their behavior (usually improve) when they know they are being observed. It was originally defined as a short-term improvement caused by observing worker performance.
  8. halo effect
    perception of one aspect of a person influences perception of other aspects. For example, attractive people are usually percieved as smarter and better than others in a whole host of ways.
  9. Problems with self report
    • memory failures: general tip, ask specific and recent questions
    • lying: solution, make it anonymous; but we also lie to ourselves
    • social desirability bias: we say what sounds good
    • lack of insight
    • influenced by mood
  10. response biases and errors
    • wording effects: how you ask a question can affect the answers
    • it's better to ask a behavioral question, as it is more difficult to lie to yourself about this
  11. two components if a good test item
    • specific and concrete
    • recent
    • tradeoff between recency and sample size
  12. three kinds of sample size relevant to a test
    • number of people: important for norming
    • number of items (questions): important for reliability and validity
    • recency of item: time-sampling issue
Card Set
chp 3.3