what is locomotor?
a reflex that appears similar and related to voluntary movement
what are motor milestones?
attatching fundamental skill that lead to skilled performance
what are the predictable changes in an individual stated by Bailey and Shirley in motor milestones
- maturation of CNS
- development of muscular strength and endurance
- development of posture and balance
- improvement of sensory processing
individual constraints acts as _____ _____
- rate limiters
- ex)baby lifting head
attaining of certain milestones themselves can act as ____ _____ for other skills?
motor milestones may provide clues about infants _____ ______?
who said this?
- neurological health
- Alan & Alexander
what is locomotion?
act of moving or capability to move from place to place
What did Adolph say about crawling surface?
- continous path to support body
- large enough
- sturdy enough
- firm enough
- sufficient friction
what is creeping ?
only hands and knees touch surface
what is crawling?
infants chest and stomach touch surface
what is the creeping and crawling progression?
- crawling with chest and stomach on the floor
- low creeping
- rocking back and forth
- creeping with legs and arms
what are rate limiters determined by Thelen, Ulrich and Jensen
infants must have muscle strength in trunk and extensor muscles must develop balance or erect posture
what are proficent walking patterns?
- stride length increases
- narrows base of support
- pelvis rotates
- balance improves
- opposititional arm swimg with legs
what are the rate controllers in later walking?
what is a rate limiter of running?
strength and balance
development changes encourgaged in jumping?
- distance or height of jump
- jumping form
what is a rate limiter of jumping?
developmental changes with galloping, skipping and coordination?
- 1st gallop
- then skipping last
- coordination is the rate limiter of all these movements becaues they require a specific rythym pattern and neuromuscular coordination can hinder/promote movement
how does proficient overarm throw look?
- forward step and pelvic rotation
- upper spine rotation and upper arm swing
- upper arm inward rotation and elbow extension
- follow through
what does kicking on the side of the ball give more force?
bigger surface area
how does a proficient kick look like?
- preparatory windup -contributes to momentum of kick
- sequential movements of kicking leg
- swings the kicking leg through a full range of motion at hip
- use trunk rotation - maxamize ROM
- use arms in opposition to legs
what is proficient punting?
- extend arms forward and drop ball as final leg stride is taken
- leap onto supporting leg and swing the punting leg up to make contact
- keep kicking leg-knee nearly straight and toes pointed at time of contact
what does proficient sidearm striking look like?
- apply linear force to strike
- differentiated trunk rotation
- full range of motion
- swing horizaontal plane and extend arms before contact
- linking of movements creates greatest force
what is prehension?
grasping an object usually with hands or hand
what did H.M Halverson study?
- power grips- infant squeezes an object against palm without the thumb providing opposition- eventually use thumb
- at 9 months
- -precision grips - hold object between thumb and one or more fingers
what did hohlstein study?
- the objects shape and size have influence on grasp
- which influence individual, enviroment, and task
what did Newell study?
movement selected by individuals is related to their hand size compared with an object size which is called body scaling
adapting characteristics of the task and envirometn to the overall body size or size of a body componant
what are the constraints of catching?
- ball size
- type of ball
- throwing distance
- trajectory of the ball
what is body scaled ratio?
action carried out by those of different sizes because of the ratio of body size to object or dimension is the same
what is coincidence-anticipation?
task or motor skills in which one anticipates the completion of a movement to coincide with the arrival of a moving obejct
what is affordance?
meaningful information in the enviroment specifies action or movement possibilities of that enviroment and specific events
what are invariants?
enviroment system concern for constant patterns of change
what is reaching?
what drives the change from random and reflexive arm movements
what is catching?
factors that variables in catching
- most common manipulative skill
- goal of catching is to retain possession of the onject you catch
- factors that are variables in catching:
- ball size, shape, speed
what is self esteem?
- ones personal judgement of his or her own capability, success, worthiness - it can be conveyed to others through words and actions
- it involves ones self evaluation both in general and in specific areas
how is self esteem influenced in children?
attributes associated with
high self esteem
low self esteem
children with high self esteem - behaviors
low self esteem - behaviors
- future expectations are higher
- unwillingness to try challenging tasks
- lack of effort
- avoidance of participation
how do adults obtain attributes of self esteem?
- actual experiences
- vicarious expereinces
- verbal persuasion
- psychological state
agents of the socialization process -3
- significant others
- social situations
- individual constraints
what are social and cultural influences?
what is the socialization process??
process by which one leares a social role within groups with certain values, morals, and rules
what is gender typing?
Occurs when a parent or significant other encourages activities that are deemed “gender appropriate.”
what are the three knowledge bases?
- reduces need to remember a great deal of information
- allows effective use of cogitive process
- reduces amount of concious attention needed to perform task
what is memory?
- what we remember that we understand
- process of revising our knowlege of a topic
stratgies that can be taught ?
memory in adults may decline slowly due to?
- alzheimers disease
three types of knowledge?
- declarative- factual info
- procedural- knowing how to do something with certain rules
- strategic- knowing general rules that apply to topics
what is affordance?
action or behavior provided or permitted for an actor by the places, objects, and events in the enviroment
what is invariance?
- stability in the kinematic values of a set of movements=
- keeping patterns in the enviroment constant