motor development2

  1. what is locomotor?
    a reflex that appears similar and related to voluntary movement
  2. what are motor milestones?
    attatching fundamental skill that lead to skilled performance
  3. what are the predictable changes in an individual stated by Bailey and Shirley in motor milestones
    • maturation of CNS
    • development of muscular strength and endurance
    • development of posture and balance
    • improvement of sensory processing
  4. individual constraints acts as _____ _____
    • rate limiters
    • ex)baby lifting head
  5. attaining of certain milestones themselves can act as ____ _____ for other skills?
    rate limiters
  6. motor milestones may provide clues about infants _____ ______?
    who said this?
    • neurological health
    • Alan & Alexander
  7. what is locomotion?
    act of moving or capability to move from place to place
  8. What did Adolph say about crawling surface?
    • continous path to support body
    • large enough
    • sturdy enough
    • firm enough
    • sufficient friction
  9. what is creeping ?
    only hands and knees touch surface
  10. what is crawling?
    infants chest and stomach touch surface
  11. what is the creeping and crawling progression?
    • crawling with chest and stomach on the floor
    • low creeping
    • rocking back and forth
    • creeping with legs and arms
  12. what are rate limiters determined by Thelen, Ulrich and Jensen
    infants must have muscle strength in trunk and extensor muscles must develop balance or erect posture
  13. what are proficent walking patterns?
    • stride length increases
    • narrows base of support
    • pelvis rotates
    • balance improves
    • opposititional arm swimg with legs
  14. what are the rate controllers in later walking?
    • fear of falling
    • pain
  15. what is a rate limiter of running?
    strength and balance
  16. development changes encourgaged in jumping?
    • age
    • distance or height of jump
    • jumping form
  17. what is a rate limiter of jumping?
  18. developmental changes with galloping, skipping and coordination?
    • 1st gallop
    • then skipping last
    • coordination is the rate limiter of all these movements becaues they require a specific rythym pattern and neuromuscular coordination can hinder/promote movement
  19. how does proficient overarm throw look?
    • forward step and pelvic rotation
    • upper spine rotation and upper arm swing
    • upper arm inward rotation and elbow extension
    • follow through
  20. what does kicking on the side of the ball give more force?
    bigger surface area
  21. how does a proficient kick look like?
    • preparatory windup -contributes to momentum of kick
    • sequential movements of kicking leg
    • swings the kicking leg through a full range of motion at hip
    • use trunk rotation - maxamize ROM
    • use arms in opposition to legs
  22. what is proficient punting?
    • extend arms forward and drop ball as final leg stride is taken
    • leap onto supporting leg and swing the punting leg up to make contact
    • keep kicking leg-knee nearly straight and toes pointed at time of contact
  23. what does proficient sidearm striking look like?
    • apply linear force to strike
    • differentiated trunk rotation
    • full range of motion
    • swing horizaontal plane and extend arms before contact
    • linking of movements creates greatest force
  24. what is prehension?
    grasping an object usually with hands or hand
  25. what did H.M Halverson study?
    • power grips- infant squeezes an object against palm without the thumb providing opposition- eventually use thumb
    • at 9 months
    • -precision grips - hold object between thumb and one or more fingers
  26. what did hohlstein study?
    • the objects shape and size have influence on grasp
    • which influence individual, enviroment, and task
  27. what did Newell study?
    movement selected by individuals is related to their hand size compared with an object size which is called body scaling
  28. body scaling?
    adapting characteristics of the task and envirometn to the overall body size or size of a body componant
  29. what are the constraints of catching?
    • ball size
    • type of ball
    • throwing distance
    • trajectory of the ball
  30. what is body scaled ratio?
    action carried out by those of different sizes because of the ratio of body size to object or dimension is the same
  31. what is coincidence-anticipation?
    task or motor skills in which one anticipates the completion of a movement to coincide with the arrival of a moving obejct
  32. what is affordance?
    meaningful information in the enviroment specifies action or movement possibilities of that enviroment and specific events
  33. what are invariants?
    enviroment system concern for constant patterns of change
  34. what is reaching?
    what drives the change from random and reflexive arm movements
  35. what is catching?
    factors that variables in catching
    • most common manipulative skill
    • goal of catching is to retain possession of the onject you catch
    • factors that are variables in catching:
    • ball size, shape, speed
  36. what is self esteem?
    • ones personal judgement of his or her own capability, success, worthiness - it can be conveyed to others through words and actions
    • it involves ones self evaluation both in general and in specific areas
  37. how is self esteem influenced in children?
  38. attributes associated with
    high self esteem
    low self esteem
    • internal
    • stable
    • controllable

    • external
    • unstable
    • uncontrollable
  39. children with high self esteem - behaviors
    low self esteem - behaviors
    • future expectations are higher
    • unwillingness to try challenging tasks
    • lack of effort
    • avoidance of participation
  40. how do adults obtain attributes of self esteem?
    • actual experiences
    • vicarious expereinces
    • verbal persuasion
    • psychological state
  41. agents of the socialization process -3
    • significant others
    • social situations
    • individual constraints
  42. what are social and cultural influences?
    • gender
    • race
    • religion
    • origin
  43. what is the socialization process??
    process by which one leares a social role within groups with certain values, morals, and rules
  44. what is gender typing?
    Occurs when a parent or significant other encourages activities that are deemed “gender appropriate.”
  45. what are the three knowledge bases?
    • reduces need to remember a great deal of information
    • allows effective use of cogitive process
    • reduces amount of concious attention needed to perform task
  46. what is memory?
    • what we remember that we understand
    • process of revising our knowlege of a topic
  47. stratgies that can be taught ?
    • rehearsal
    • labeling
    • grouping
  48. memory in adults may decline slowly due to?
    • aging
    • disease
    • alzheimers disease
  49. three types of knowledge?
    • declarative- factual info
    • procedural- knowing how to do something with certain rules
    • strategic- knowing general rules that apply to topics
  50. what is affordance?
    action or behavior provided or permitted for an actor by the places, objects, and events in the enviroment
  51. what is invariance?
    • stability in the kinematic values of a set of movements=
    • keeping patterns in the enviroment constant
Card Set
motor development2